당신은 주제를 찾고 있습니까 “air quality daejeon – My Day Trip From Seoul to Daejeon | Life in Korea Vlog“? 다음 카테고리의 웹사이트 ppa.diaochoangduong.vn 에서 귀하의 모든 질문에 답변해 드립니다: https://ppa.diaochoangduong.vn/blog. 바로 아래에서 답을 찾을 수 있습니다. 작성자 cari cakes 이(가) 작성한 기사에는 조회수 42,846회 및 좋아요 1,626개 개의 좋아요가 있습니다.
In the report, it was stated that no city in Koreahas been able to meet the annual average PM2. 5 concentration of 10 µg/m³ as recommended by theWorld Health Organisation (WHO). Most of the air pollution-related policies ofthe South Korean government focus only on temporary policies and diesel emissions reduction.Ho Chi Minh City is classed as a moderately polluted city in South East Asia.In 2019, Croatia came in with a PM2. 5 reading of 19.09 μg/m³, a number that placed it into the ‘moderate’ pollutions rating bracket for its yearly average. The moderate pollution bracket requires a PM2.
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Moderate||74 US AQI||PM2.5|
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d여기에서 My Day Trip From Seoul to Daejeon | Life in Korea Vlog – air quality daejeon 주제에 대한 세부정보를 참조하세요
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Hi guys! Last weekend I thought we’d head outside of Seoul for a bit so I took a bus from the express bus terminal to Daejeon on a rainy Saturday. I wish I could have showed you more because my list of things I want to see in Daejeon is sooo long, but for a few rainy hours, this was a fun day 🙂 Hope you enjooooy~
If you like seeing cities other than Seoul, check out my Outside of Seoul playlist here: http://bit.ly/2wkkwlN
Yuseong Hot Springs – http://naver.me/F1jvmrhN
온천칼국수 (Kalguksu) – http://naver.me/F8JoNaw7
달방구커피 (Moonbanggu Coffee) – http://naver.me/5BYbWBvW
Daejeon Modern History Museum – http://naver.me/xBQUmATo
Underground Shopping – http://naver.me/x0psqjdQ
바로 그집 (Ddeokbokki) – http://naver.me/FGSAdrs5
Sky Road Shopping Street – http://naver.me/GVu0sE78
성심당 (Bakery) – http://naver.me/G5WkYGgR
Glaciers – https://soundcloud.com/glaciers-576796587
dyalla – https://soundcloud.com/dyallas
oiseaubizarre – https://soundcloud.com/oiseaubizarre
My Outside of Seoul Playlist: https://goo.gl/BaztUv
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What’s my job? (Non-teaching job in korea) – https://bit.ly/2LPLEPS
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Daejeon Air Pollution: Real-time Air Quality Index (AQI)
Daejeon PM25 (fine particulate matter) measured by South Air Korea Environment Corporation (대기, 25, 95. PM10 AQI. 21, Daejeon PM10 (respirable particulate …
Date Published: 4/6/2021
Daejeon Air Quality Index (AQI) and South Korea Air Pollution
Daejeon Air Quality Index (AQI) is now Good. Get real-time, historical and forecast PM2.5 and … Read the air pollution in Daejeon, South Korea with AirVisual.
Date Published: 5/24/2022
Air Quality Daejeon: Live air quality and pollution Forecasts
Live air quality report and air quality forecast in Daejeon … The air is moderately polluted. Greater than the maximum limit established for one year by WHO. A …
Date Published: 2/25/2021
Daejeon, Daejeon, South Korea Air Quality Index – AccuWeather
Localized Air Quality Index and forecast for Daejeon, Daejeon, South Korea. Track air pollution now to help plan your day and make healthier life …
Date Published: 11/23/2022
Air Quality and Pollen in Daejeon, Daejeon, South Korea
Tomorrow.io’s hyper local air quality and pollen forecast in Daejeon.
Date Published: 8/3/2021
Air Quality & Pollen Forecast for Daejeon – meteoblue
Find the current air quality & pollen forecast for Daejeon. ✓ Air quality index ✓ Particulates ✓ Gases.
Date Published: 2/21/2021
Daejeon Air Quality Index (AQI) – Korea, South
Current Daejeon Air Quality Index (AQI) is 37 GOOD level with real-time air pollution PM2.5 (8 µg/m³), PM10 (8 µg/m³), temperature (24˚C) in Korea, South.
Date Published: 9/13/2021
Air Quality Forecast for Goejeong-dong, Daejeon, South Korea
Today’s Air Quality-Goejeong-dong, Daejeon, South Korea. 61. Moderate. Air quality is acceptable; however, for some pollutants there may be a moderate …
Date Published: 6/6/2022
Dunsan-dong Air Quality Index (AQI) and Daejeon Air Pollution
Dunsan-dong Air Quality Index (AQI) is now Moderate. Get real-time, historical and forecast PM2.5 and weather data. Read the air pollution in Dunsan-dong, …
Date Published: 9/4/2022
주제와 관련된 이미지 air quality daejeon
주제와 관련된 더 많은 사진을 참조하십시오 My Day Trip From Seoul to Daejeon | Life in Korea Vlog. 댓글에서 더 많은 관련 이미지를 보거나 필요한 경우 더 많은 관련 기사를 볼 수 있습니다.
주제에 대한 기사 평가 air quality daejeon
- Author: cari cakes
- Views: 조회수 42,846회
- Likes: 좋아요 1,626개
- Date Published: 2018. 5. 19.
- Video Url link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FT1jp7wVXFs
Daejeon Air Quality Index (AQI) and South Korea Air Pollution
How badly polluted is the air in Daejeon?
Daejeon is a city located in the mid region of South Korea, with a population of 1.5 million, with numbers in the lower estimate range due to this census data having been taken in 2010, and thus would have grown significantly since then. It is the fifth largest city in the country, and considered a major transport hub for the country, being well connected with many cities via numerous roads, motorways and trainlines, being only 50 minutes away from the capital city of Seoul if one is to use the KTX, the highspeed rail system in place in South Korea.
Observing some of the air pollution readings taken towards the end of 2020 and as well as the early portion of 2021 as guides to go by, it becomes apparent that Daejeon is subject to some fairly prominent pollutive issues. PM2.5 readings up to highs of 31.6 μg/m³ were taken at the end of December 2020, a reading that would place it in the ‘moderate’ pollution bracket, a group rating that requires a PM2.5 reading of anywhere between 12.1 to 35.4 μg/m³ to be classified as such. As it stands, this reading is on the absolute higher end of this scale, only a few units away from moving into the more hazardous ‘unhealthy for sensitive groups’ rating, which requires a PM2.5 reading of 35.5 to 55.4 μg/m³ for classification.
In some contrast, there were a few days that came in with more appreciable readings, with a PM2.5 number of 8.3 μg/m³ having also been taken in late 2020, as well as a few lower readings of 8.5 μg/m³ and 10.3 μg/m³ having been taken in early January. Whilst these would have placed those days into the World Health Organizations (WHO’s) target goal rating (10 μg/m³ or less required), or the ‘good’ group rating (10 to 12 μg/m³ required), they are overwhelmingly surrounded by readings that come in averaging 28 μg/m³ and above, so as such it can be said that Daejeon has some pollutive issues occurring, particularly during the colder months when these readings were taken.
What is the main cause of pollution and lower air quality in Daejeon?
Like many cities in South Korea, Daejeon is subject to numerous sources of pollution that compound each other when added together, and are made worse during certain times of the year due to meteorological conditions, such as the extreme colds of winter, making the situation considerably worse. Reasons for this include the massive increase in the use of heating for both homes and places of businesses, and as such power plants will have a significantly higher demand placed on them. This in turn causes them to go through larger amounts of fossil fuels such as coal to provide these energy demands, which releases large amounts of pollutants and chemicals into the air, some of which will be discussed in greater detail in following.
What are some other causes of pollution in Daejeon and the pollutants they release?
Other causes of pollution would be the ever present usage of vehicles, something that is not just a problem in Daejeon but indeed the whole world. Vehicles put out large amounts of contaminants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) as well as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), with nitrogen dioxide being one of the more noteworthy offenders here. Areas that see high volumes of traffic often have direct correlation with a high level of nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere, as the two often go hand in hand. Vehicles also put out fine particulate matter such as black carbon, a major component in soot which finds its release from factories as well, or any site or area that has some form of open fire or combustion taking place. These are some of the other main causes of pollution in Daejeon, as well as a few of the chemical contaminants they release.
What are some health issues associated with breathing polluted air in Daejeon?
With PM2.5 readings going up to 30.1 μg/m³ as taken in early January 2021, there would be a large amount of issues that could arise for certain individuals who are exposed to high levels of pollution on a daily basis. There are certain groups that are more at risk as well, with pregnant mothers, young children, the elderly as well as the sick or immunocompromised topping the list for those who are most vulnerable.
Health problems that may appear would include short term ones such as irritation to the eyes, nose, mouth and skin as well, causing rashes or other dermal problems to present themselves, as well as a massive increase in allergies, particularly amongst young children. More serious long term issues would be ones such as heightened rates of cancer, particularly of the throat and lungs, or any area of the respiratory tract.
Further pulmonary conditions may also present themselves, such as a reduction in full lung function, and higher susceptibility towards ailments such as pneumonia, bronchitis, emphysema and aggravated forms of asthma, even triggering it off in people who may have never suffered from it before.
Of note is that Korea tends to suffer from heightened levels of pollution in the winter months, due to the previously mentioned reasons. When the air quality drops to more appreciable levels, the chances of these conditions occurring, as well as their severity would go down significantly.
Despite this, it must be mentioned that any air pollution reading over the WHO’s target goal of 10 μg/m³ or less has the chance to cause adverse health effects, and as such people should always remain vigilant and try to keep themselves safe when caught in areas of high pollution through the use of preventative measures such as wearing fine particle filtering masks, or avoiding outdoor activities if possible.
What can Daejeon do to improve its air quality?
Using examples of other cities round the world that have significantly improved the quality of their air, Daejeon and indeed the whole of South Korea could make steps towards reducing the amount of pollution put out into the atmosphere by placing emission caps, or limits, on areas such as industrial zones, factories or even national power plants, holding those who breach the safe levels of pollution emission accountable through the use of fines or threat of closure if guidelines are not kept to.
As well as this, national level measures such as the gradual phasing out of fossil fuel use in factories, and moving towards utilizing more sustainable and clean energy sources to provide power to the ever growing population.
Daejeon Air Pollution: Real-time Air Quality Index
The GAIA air quality monitoring stations are using high-tech laser particle sensors to measure in real-time PM2.5 pollution, which is one of the most harmful air pollutants.Very easy to set up, they only require a WIFI access point and a USB power supply. Once connected, air pollution levels are reported instantaneously and in real-time on our maps
Usage Notice: All the Air Quality data are unvalidated at the time of publication, and due to quality assurance these data may be amended, without notice, at any time. The World Air Quality Index project has exercised all reasonable skill and care in compiling the contents of this information and under no circumstances will the World Air Quality Index project team or its agents be liable in contract, tort or otherwise for any loss, injury or damage arising directly or indirectly from the supply of this data.
Daejeon Air Quality Index (AQI) and South Korea Air Pollution
! PM2.5 x1.7
PM2.5 concentration in Daejeon is currently 1.7 times the WHO annual air quality guideline value
Air Quality Daejeon: Live air quality and pollution Forecasts
Air quality in Daejeon Live air quality report and air quality forecast in Daejeon
outdoor sports bring baby out
bring baby out eating outside
The air is moderately polluted. Greater than the maximum limit established for one year by WHO. A long-term exposure constitutes a health risk.
Daejeon, Daejeon, South Korea Air Quality Index
All raw air quality data and information has been obtained from Plume Labs. Although AccuWeather intends to provide accurate information relating to air quality and forecasting, the data or information may not have been subject to a quality assurance review to determine their accuracy. The information associated with the air quality maps are as real-time as possible and are displayed as soon as practical upon transmission to us, including current index, forecast, daily and hourly air quality data. All data and information is presented only for public benefit and should not be deemed final in any way. All air quality monitoring is subject to equipment and sensor limitations and intermittent fluctuations that may cause invalid or inaccurate readings. All air quality data and information is derived from a separate set of air monitoring data values based on recorded concentrations of the major pollutants for each day. The raw measurements are then converted by Plume Labs into values comprising the Air Quality Index (AQI), using standards and guidelines developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the World Health Organization (WHO), among other scientific studies by Plume Labs. The air quality data and information is subject to change at any time. AccuWeather has no legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or correctness of the air quality data and information, and expressly disclaims any and all damages or losses that may have occurred by you or any third party either directly or indirectly as a result of any information obtained from the air quality data and information. Reliance on any air quality data and information for any advice, including medical advice, is strictly prohibited. AccuWeather hereby disclaims any and all representations and warranties with respect to the air quality data and information, including but not limited to any implied warranties of accuracy, fitness for use, and merchantability. All air quality data and information is further subject to Plume Labs’ General Terms and Conditions located here. https://tutorial.plumelabs.com/post/terms_of_use/
Air Quality and Pollen in Daejeon, Daejeon, South Korea
On average, the air quality on this day will be unhealthy for sensitive groups, meaning that members of sensitive groups may experience health effects. The general public is less likely to be affected. According to our index, ranging from 0 to 500, the air quality is going to be between values of 73 and 150.
On average, the air quality on this day will be moderate, meaning that air quality is acceptable. However, there may be a risk for some people, particularly those who are unusually sensitive to air pollution. According to our index, ranging from 0 to 500, the air quality is going to be between values of 29 and 149.
Air Quality & Pollen Forecast for Daejeon
The top panel shows the forecast for the Common Air Quality Index (CAQI) used in Europe since 2006. It is a number on a scale from 1 to 100, where a low value (green colors) means good air quality and a high value (red colors) means bad air quality. CAQI colour-coding is used in all air pollution forecast panels of the meteogram to indicate the level of pollution. For the pollen forecast there are no official guidelines for color-coding, as pollen are not part of the Air Quality Index forecast. The Air Quality index is defined separately near roads (“roadside” index) or away from roads (“background” index). meteoblue uses the background index, because weather models can not reproduce small-scale differences along the roads. Therefore, measurements along roads will show higher values than forecast here.
The second panel shows the forecast of particles (PM and desert dust) for Daejeon. Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the air. Sources of particulate matter can be natural or anthropogenic. Of greatest concern to public health are the particles small enough to be inhaled into the deepest parts of the lung. These particles are less than 10 microns in diameter (approximately 1/7th the thickness of the a human hair) and are defined as PM10. They are a mixture of materials that can include smoke, soot, dust, salt, acids, and metals. Particulate matter also forms when gases emitted from motor vehicles and industry undergo chemical reactions in the atmosphere. PM10 is visible by eye as the haze that we think of as smog. PM10 are among the most harmful of all air pollutants.
PM10 can increase the number and severity of asthma attacks
PM10 causes or aggravate bronchitis and other lung diseases
PM10 reduces the body’s ability to fight infections
PM10 includes fine particulate matter defined as PM2.5, which are fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less. The biggest impact of particulate air pollution on public health is understood to be from long-term exposure to PM2.5:
PM2.5 increases the age-specific mortality risk, particularly from cardiovascular causes.
Desert Dust consists of particles smaller than 62 μm originating in deserts. Often, the dust particles are small, leading to high concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 and all related health impacts.
Forecasts of concentrations of air pollution gases are presented in the third panel. Ozone (O₃) pollution in the lower troposphere is caused mainly in urban areas. Ozone can:
Make it more difficult to breathe deeply and vigorously
Cause shortness of breath, and pain when taking a deep breath
Cause coughing and sore or scratchy throat
Inflame and damage the breathing airways
Aggravate lung diseases such as asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis
Increase the frequency of asthma attacks
Make the lungs more susceptible to infection
Continue to damage the lungs even when the symptoms have disappeared
Cause chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) is a gas, which is invisible and has a nasty, sharp smell. It reacts easily with other substances to form harmful compounds, such as sulfuric acid, sulfurous acid and sulfate particles.
Short-term exposures to SO₂ can harm the human respiratory system and make breathing difficult.
SO₂ and other sulfur oxides can contribute to acid rain, which can harm sensitive ecosystems.
Children, the elderly, and those who suffer from asthma are particularly sensitive to effects of SO₂.
Nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) is a reddish-brown gas that has a characteristic sharp, biting odor and is a prominent air pollutant. The major source of nitrogen dioxide is the burning of fossil fuels: coal, oil and gas. Most of the nitrogen dioxide in cities comes from motor vehicle exhaust. Nitrogen dioxide is an important air pollutant because it contributes to the formation of ozone, which can have significant impacts on human health.
NO₂ inflames the lining of the lungs, and it can reduce immunity to lung infections
NO₂ causes problems such as wheezing, coughing, colds, flu and bronchitis
For Europe, the air pollution meteogram has a fourth panel, showing the pollen forecast for Daejeon.
Birch pollen is one of the most common airborne allergens during springtime, or later in the year in higher latitudes. As the trees bloom, they release tiny grains of pollen that are scattered by the wind. A single birch tree can produce up to five million pollen grains. Pollen is dispersed by air currents and can be transported over large distances. We thus show the pollen forecast overlayed with the 10 m wind speed.
Grass pollen are the primary trigger of pollen allergies during the summer months. They cause some of the most severe and difficult-to-treat symptoms. In humid climates, the grass pollen season lasts several months. In drier climates the grass pollen season is significantly shorter, as are the birch and olive pollen season.
Precipitation can clean the air from pollen, but if it is associated with thunderstorms, the strong winds initially increase the pollen concentration.
Neither the European Commission nor ECMWF nor meteoblue is responsible for any use that may be made of the forecast information presented here. Predictions are issued from an atmospheric model with 12 km resolution. Outputs may not be correlated enough with real concentrations. Please consult your local air quality agency, especially in the case of a pollution peak or a pollution alert.
Daejeon Air Quality Index (AQI) : Real-Time Air Pollution
(i) The primary causes of outdoor air pollution are solid, liquid particles called aerosols & gase from vehicles emissions, construction activities, factories, burning stubble & fossil fuels and wildfire, etc.
(ii) Main causes of indoor air pollution are harmful gases from cooking fuels (such as wood, crop wastes, charcoal, coal and dung), damp, mould smoke, chemicals from cleaning materials, etc.
South Korea Air Quality Index (AQI) and Air Pollution information
What is the air quality forecast for South Korea?
Officially known as the Republic of Korea, South Korea is a Southeast Asian country located on the southern part of the Korean peninsula. The northern part being occupied by North Korea with which it shares a land border. In 2019, the country had a population of around 50 million people, out of which, half live in the capital city of Seoul.
At the end of 2020, Seoul was experiencing “Good” air quality with a US AQI figure of 41. This is based on recommendations from the World Health Organisation (WHO). The main pollutants suspended in the air constituted of: – PM2.5 – 10 µg/m³, PM10 – 26.5 µg/m³, ozone (O 3 ) – 22 µg/m³, nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) – 52.6 µg/m³, sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) – 7.9 µg/m³ and carbon monoxide (CO) – 572.5 µg/m³. With figures like these windows and doors can be safely opened and outdoor activities enjoyed.
In 2019, the annual average air quality in South Korea was classified as being “Moderate” with a reading of 78 US AQI. The PM2.5 level was twice the recommended level. In world rankings, South Korea was listed as being the 26th dirtiest country out of 98 which were judged.
How bad is air pollution in South Korea?
During the winter and spring of 2019, the Korean Peninsula was engulfed in the worst type of fine dust. From January to March, 12 emergency measures to reduce fine dust were imposed but only in the metropolitan area. In March, for the first time ever, they were issued for 7 consecutive days. At this time, the daily average concentration of ultrafine dust (PM2.5) in Seoul was 129 μg per m³ (micrograms per cubic metre). In 2020, due to the fine dust seasonal management system the average concentration per cubic metre in Korea for four months has decreased by 27 per cent from 33 μg last year to 24 μg this year. Experts who look for reasons why this should be attributed it to the reduction in movement due to the COVID 19 pandemic, social activities ceased, factories were shut down and traffic dramatically decreased.
In 2019, the average concentration of ultrafine dust (PM2.5) in South Korea was the worst among the member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). It was second place in 2018, but it climbed one step to the top. According to the ‘2019 World Air Quality Report’ released this month by AirVisual, a global air pollution investigation agency, South Korea’s annual average ultrafine dust concentration last year was 24.8 µg/m³ which was the worst among OECD member countries. Chile (24.9 µg/m³), which had the highest concentration of ultrafine dust among OECD countries in 2018, recorded 22.6 µg/m³ last year, improving the concentration of fine dust compared to Seoul
What are the main causes of air pollution in South Korea?
There are two main sources of air pollution in South Korea, namely emissions from burning fossil fuels and vehicle emissions. In 1960, South Korea was a developing country switching from an agrarian to an industrial economy. During the 1980s and 90s, South Korea’s economy grew at a rate of 10 per cent per annum. In 2015 South Korea was ranked as the world’s 11th largest gross domestic producer but this position was attained through dirty coal-fired power stations and dirty vehicle emissions.
A large percentage of the pollutants are blown in by the prevailing winds from China. It is thought that between 30 and 50 per cent of PM2.5 pollutant in South Korea, originated from China. These are figures recorded on “good” days on “bad” days it can reach as high as 60 to 80 per cent. During the colder winter months, the air currents are noticeably slower and therefore do not disperse the pollutants that still drift across from China. South Korea too must shoulder some of the blame with its heavy reliance on coal-fired power stations and diesel fumes from vehicles and generators.
Due to China’s rapidly developing economy, it burns an estimated 4 billion tons of coal to feed its power-hungry population. This contributes to at least 50 per cent of the PM2.5 particulates suspended in South Korea’s air. The situation is exacerbated by the dust blown in from China’s western deserts and Inner Mongolia. The mega-city of Shanghai was also to blame as a source of pollution. This situation is expected to worsen as China continues to satisfy its need for energy unless steps are taken to prevent it.
What can be done to improve air quality in South Korea?
When data from domestic and overseas satellite observations such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) are combined and analysed, the levels of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) has decreased significantly since the 1990s. This is partially due to the regulation on the use of solid fuels such as anthracite. The high proportion of low sulphur oil and the introduction of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is also substantial. The same can be said of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), which is often produced from the exhaust gases from vehicles. The concentration of nitrogen dioxide had slowly increased but has been gradually decreasing since 2007. The number of cars continued to increase, but the reduction in nitrogen dioxide means that emission regulations have become stronger.
When it comes to levels of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), both China and Japan are getting lower. Looking at the concentration trend from 2011 to 2018, both sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in China are significantly decreasing. However, it should be taken into account that this is a relative value. This means that China’s emissions decreased significantly in 2018 compared to 2011, but it will still be higher than that of South Korea and Japan. What is impressive is Japan, where there is already a lower level of air pollutant emissions than South Korea and China. Nevertheless, pollutant emissions decreased in 2018 compared to 2011. With a concerted effort, these levels could drop further.
Which city in South Korea had the highest levels of air pollution?
Many different types of pollution have increased proportionately as South Korea’s economy has increased over the last decades. Satellite data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellite has shown that Seoul is amongst one of the world’s cities with the worst air pollution. Between 2009 and 2013 the average PM10 figures were considerably higher than of capital cities such as London, Paris, Tokyo and Los Angeles. Because of this poor air quality, it is estimated that 16 per cent of all deaths recorded in Seoul are due to air pollution.
At the end of 2020, the South Korean city of Jeungpyeong took the title of the dirtiest city with a US AQI reading of 97. This classed it as “Moderate” but the 2 previous days had classed it as being “Unhealthy”.
With levels of this scale, it is advisable to close doors and windows to stop the ingress of dirty air and the group of people who are sensitive to poor air quality should consider staying indoors if possible or to use a good quality mask if venturing outside is inevitable.
In comparison to other cities, the average annual concentration of ultrafine dust in Jeungpyeong-gun, Chungbuk, was 33.9 µg/m³, which was the worst in South Korea. The average concentration of Jeungpyeong-gun was ranked 7th among the top 100 cities in OECD countries. In addition, 61 out of the top 100 cities with the most severe dust pollution among all OECD member countries are Korean cities. In 2018, 44 of the top 100 cities increased by 1.6 times compared to that of Korean cities. In the report, it was stated that no city in Korea has been able to meet the annual average PM2.5 concentration of 10 µg/m³ as recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Most of the air pollution-related policies of the South Korean government focus only on temporary policies and diesel emissions reduction.
What does the future hold with regards to air quality in South Korea?
The air pollution problem is a global concern, in the past, air pollution has been looked on as a local problem. The size of the pollutant source was small and the population density was low. But now both of these factors have increased and it has become not only a national problem but a global one too. Satellite observation is of great help in monitoring air pollutants crossing borders. It was also an opportunity to confirm that social change can reduce air pollutants.
In February 2020, Korea successfully launched the Cheonrian 2B satellite. The satellite eventually settled in geostationary orbit 36,000 km above the Korean Peninsula. The satellite is equipped with an environmental satellite which incorporates a sensor that tracks pollutants in the air. From the beginning of next year, air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and ozone (O 3 ) from 26 countries in East Asia including Korea will be observed and tracked eight times a day.
Ground monitoring systems can accurately determine the properties and concentrations of pollutants in certain areas. In order to track pollutants entering the country from outside, observation networks must be located above the sea. It is not easy to reliably measure air quality on the sea. Having North Korea as a neighbour has its ramifications because the impact of pollutants exchanged with North Korea is quite significant, but there is no data on measuring air pollutants in North Korea. The use of satellites fills that void. The earth can be seen from above without borders and the occurrence, movement, and distribution of pollutants can be easily observed.
Since 2016, the Korean Ministry of Environment has regulated 11 different air pollutants and categorised a further 32 as being hazardous to health. It is their intention to close down 10 of their 61 coal-fired power stations by 2025.
Does the exclusion of traffic from city centres help to reduce air pollution?
Fossil fuel combustion is the largest contributor to air pollution than anything else in South Korea. The country itself has very little natural resources and therefore imports all but 1 per cent of all its needs. The country heavily relies on this source of energy for its increasing demand in expanding industries. 38 per cent of Korea’s energy requirements come from oil, with a further 29 per cent from coal and a relatively low reliance on gas at just 15 per cent.
The number of cars and other vehicles on Korea’s roads is increasing rapidly. Due to the expanding economy, more delivery vehicles are used in the cities and these are usually powered by diesel which is a particularly dirty fuel when used in heavy-duty vehicles.
An efficient public transport system is needed to encourage people to leave their cars at home and commute on public transport. Modern buses can be powered by clean sustainable energy and electricity. Many trains run on electricity too. Delivery vehicles when used within the city limits could be restricted to electric power only.
What are the effects on health by breathing South Korea’s poor quality air?
Strong, healthy people with no known pre-existing medical conditions can be affected by air pollution. The effects may be mild symptoms of coughing and wheezing or irritated eyes. Skin irritations can happen too depending on the specific pollutants suspended in the air.
These symptoms become severe for certain groups of people such as pregnant women, children under the age of 14 years and senior citizens. They may soon succumb to aggravated cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, shortage of breath due to stress placed on the heart and lungs as they work harder to maintain the required level of oxygen needed by the body. Cells in the respiratory organs can become irrevocably damaged in a relatively short span of time.
People in these groups may suffer from health problem at lower air pollution exposure levels, or their health may be affected more intensely.
Prolonged exposure may lead to the faster ageing of the lung tissue which leads to a loss in capacity and thus functionality. Diseases such as asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, and possibly cancer are more prevalent in heavily polluted cities.
Ho Chi Minh City Air Quality Index (AQI) and Vietnam Air Pollution
Is the air in Ho Chi Minh City very polluted?
Ho Chi Minh City is classed as a moderately polluted city in South East Asia. From 2017 to 2018, the PM2.5 level rose from 23.6 to 26.9 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m³). These levels are more than double those recommended by the WHO (World Health Organisation) as an annual guideline. Due to this fact, Ho Chi Minh City appeared in the league table of the top most polluted cities in the region. More data can be found in the IQAir AirVisual World Air Quality Report.
Ho Chi Minh City is Vietnam’s largest city but it is not as polluted as the country’s northern capital city which is Hanoi. The air pollution here was almost twice as high with the 2018 average PM2.5 µg/m3 of 40.8 micrograms per cubic metre. This ranked Hanoi as the second most polluted city in South East Asia.
Who currently monitors Ho Chi Minh City’s air quality?
The monitors are operated by the U.S. Consulate together with several other non-government sources. Since early 2016, hourly figures have been reported by the Consulate and the other figures are collated on a daily basis. There were just six non-government monitors in October 2019, but this figure has since risen to 15 monitors in December of the same year. These are mainly operated by schools, individuals, companies or universities.
Recently, there has been an increase in the amount of data collected by monitors across the city as inhabitants are becoming increasingly aware of the hazards associated with poor air quality. The Vietnamese government has recently announced that it intends to create another nine air quality monitoring stations, with another eleven promised before 2030.
Is the air pollution in Ho Chi Minh City the same throughout the year?
The air quality usually gets worse between the months of November to January as this is the dry season and air pollution rises. Due to the lack of rain, the air does not get cleaned therefore the number of fine particulates rises sharply. Residents are encouraged to wear a good quality mask when outside in order to help mitigate the problem.
What causes Ho Chi Minh City’s air pollution?
It is without a doubt that the main cause of air pollution in the city is due to the transportation system. There are millions of cars and motorbikes that clog the city’s streets on a daily basis. Many of these vehicles are old and therefore do not comply with emission standards. There is a public transportation system, but this too operates fairly old vehicles which also belch out thick black smoke. However, there are some newer vehicles which are starting to appear.
Another factor which is a contributor to the poor air quality is the huge amount of construction underway. The demolition of the older building creates a huge amount of dust and when the new construction begins, cement powder becomes an issue.
Many households use charcoal cooking stoves which are cheap to operate and therefore very popular. Numerous restaurants offer barbeque style meals cooked over an open fire, fuelled by charcoal. Honeycomb charcoal is favoured by many residents because of its low cost.
What effects does this polluted air have on the people in Ho Chi Minh City?
The Saigon General Hospital reported a 5-10 per cent increase in admissions in September 2019. These patients were admitted on days with noticeably higher levels of PM2.5 particulates which is an indication of the connection between air pollution and public health.
In 2016, air pollution was attributed to causing the deaths of over 60,000 people throughout the whole country. These deaths were from heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, or chronic obstructive pulmonary heart disease according to figures released by the WHO (World Health Organisation).
There are times when the smog can be seen hanging over the city and it also reduces visibility on the roads which, in itself can be hazardous.
Can air pollution in Ho Chi Minh City be reduced and if so, how?
Vietnam’s government have identified several short-term solutions which include much tighter regulations over vehicle emissions, together with an improved traffic control system. It has also been suggested that construction sites must take more responsibility for the control of dust and other pollutants generated by their working procedures. Clean sustainable energy needs to be made available to households in order to reduce the number of biomass products being burnt.
Urban planning needs to be considered when looking into the future of Ho Chi Minh City. There are many densely populated government-controlled facilities which could be relocated to the edge of the city. This would create swathes of green space giving much respite from the dirty city air. These facilities include hospitals, government departments, universities and schools. Private industry could also be encouraged to relocate to newly created industrial parks outside the city limits. This in itself would reduce the need for their employees to travel into the city which in turn will lessen the amount of traffic there, thus improving air quality.
A new code of practice regarding new–builds could be introduced as could the advent of solar-powered buildings and the use of green energy. Many people see the use of EVs (Electric Vehicles) to be an answer to pollution in our city centres. The use of such vehicles needs to be encouraged, possibly by the use of incentives when purchasing them or subsidies when using them to travel into the city.
An efficient public transportation system must be considered by making use of fuel-efficient buses. Many countries are using electrically powered buses in their city centres.
A member of the Vietnam Clean Air Partnership (VCAP), has recommended that large industrial facilities which produce large amounts particulate matter, should be more closely monitored and their emissions regulated. It has also been suggested that a cap is placed on the volume of vehicles that enter the city centre each day. This method has proved to be very effective in the large Chinese cities.
Individuals can also take measures by “carpooling” or cycling to work each day.
Croatia Air Quality Index (AQI) and Air Pollution information
Does Croatia have a good quality of air?
Croatia, or more officially known as the Republic of Croatia, is a country located on the boundaries of both central and southeastern Europe, making it a crossroads of sort between the two regions. It shares borders with countries such as Hungary, Slovenia, Serbia and even a maritime border with Italy. It is a country that has a high ranking on the human development index, a measure of different factors such as health, education and national income to gain an understanding of the overall quality of life.
Croatia also has a significant economy, with agriculture, the industrial sector and the service industry taking the lead in this aspect. Tourism also plays a significant role, with Croatia being among one of the top twenty most desirable tourist destinations worldwide, and as such would also see a large amount of gross national income from that, as well as contributions to rising air pollution levels. In general, as the movement of people increases, so too does the subsequent use of vehicles, which in turn raises the pollution levels, causing the atmosphere to become permeated with smoke, haze and a number of other pollutants and chemical compounds that will be discussed in more detail shortly.
In 2019, Croatia came in with a PM2.5 reading of 19.09 μg/m³, a number that placed it into the ‘moderate’ pollutions rating bracket for its yearly average. The moderate pollution bracket requires a PM2.5 reading of anywhere between 12.1 to 35.4 μg/m³ to be classed as such, and although it is not an overtly bad rating by any means, it must be noted that any reading above the world health organizations (WHO’s) target goal of 10 μg/m³ or less for the best possibly quality of air (with the closer the number is to 0 of course being the most optimal) has the chance to cause adverse effects in people who are exposed to these levels of pollution.
As such, certain demographics such as the elderly, young children, those with compromised immune systems or preexisting health or respiratory conditions may be more at risk, particularly when there are other factors at play, such as proximity to high pollution zones like busy roads or industrial areas. These are all factors that must be considered when examining the air quality level in any country and the risk it poses to the citizens, as well as any travelers heading there.
In terms of its numbers, the PM2.5 reading of 19.09 μg/m³ that Croatia presented with was enough to place it in 51st place out of all countries ranked worldwide, coming in just behind other countries such as Malaysia and Mexico (with readings of 19.36 μg/m³ and 20.02 μg/m³ respectively). PM2.5 refers to particulate matter that is 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter, and due to its incredibly small size, is of significant danger to human health when respired.
As such it is used as a major component in the calculation of the overall levels of air quality, alongside other pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) or ozone (O 3 ). It can reach even smaller sizes, going down to widths of 0.001 microns or less across, and due to its prevalence and effect on human health, will be used to gauge the pollution levels and their effects on human health in Croatia throughout this article.
In finishing, Croatia has many cities with a very respectable quality of air, but also comes in with a ranking that is unusually high when compared to many of its western European counterparts. As such, the air quality levels in Croatia could certainly be improved in the coming years, to reach a level of cleanliness to match with its high human development index ranking and quality of life.
What are some of the main causes of air pollution in Croatia?
A country such as Croatia would have many different sources of pollution, with different elements of both old and new sources coming together to compound each other, as well as meteorological conditions worsening the situation further, as generally the pollution levels tend to increase in the colder months, a phenomenon that is seen not only in Croatia but many other countries that have a distinct winter season.
As the temperature drops, conversely the energy consumption level rises to meet the increased demand of heating for both homes and businesses, something that causes factories and power plants to increase the amount of coal or other fuels to provide the aforementioned energy. This in turn releases large amounts of pollution related to the combustion of these materials, as well as dangerous forms of fine particulate matter.
This is one of the sources of pollution that would afflict Croatia, more prominently during the winter months, although due to its large industry, there would be factories that would be putting out large volumes of pollutants year round, releasing both the fumes related to the combustion of fossil fuels, as well as novel chemicals related to whatever item or industrial material is being produced.
As an example, any factories that deal in plastic goods, plastic casing or packaging, will inevitably leak some form of industrial effluence containing burnt plastic fumes. This applies to other industrial items as well, many of which can lead to dangerous compounds and even toxic metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury being released into the atmosphere, as well as the groundwater and food chain.
Other sources of pollution that would contribute to the year round ambient readings of PM2.5 would include the ever present use of vehicles. These are a constant elevator of pollution levels round the world, from the busiest cities to even the most remote islands. Cars and other personal vehicles such as motorbikes can put out large volumes of pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), with nitrogen dioxide being the chief culprit when it comes to vehicular emissions. It is usually found in large concentrations in any area that sees a high volume of traffic. There is such a prominent link that the amount of nitrogen dioxide in the air can be used to directly correlate how much pollution is being caused by vehicles alone.
So, in closing, these are the two main sources of pollution in Croatia. There are many other minor forms that also contribute, such as the building of infrastructure, construction sites and road repairs all adding to pollution levels as well as fine particulate matter in the air. During the colder months, many homes in rural areas or those built using traditional heating and cooking stoves and fireplaces built into them will go through large amounts of wood and charcoal, both of which can release a plethora of their own chemicals into the air, contributing even further to the pollution levels seen in the yearly average, as well as in the various cities registered across Croatia.
When is air pollution at its worst in Croatia?
Observing the data taken over the course of 2019, across the various cities registered in Croatia, there emerges a pattern of when the air quality is at its worst, and also when it starts to improve and show better levels. Whilst there is not as much of a distinct pattern as other countries when it comes to clear cut periods of low and high levels of pollution, it can still be seen that the highest levels of pollution are taken at the very beginning and end of the year, corresponding directly with the winter months, as mentioned before, due to the impact the cold weather has on the overall level of air quality.
To use a more polluted city as an example, Slavonski Brod will be referenced. In October a significant decline in its air quality levels was seen, going up to 15.6 μg/m³, a leap of almost double when compared to Septembers reading of 9.5 μg/m³. From here on out it continued to rise, with a reading of 21.3 μg/m³ being taken and November, before an even worse reading of 49.8 μg/m³ was taken in December. This was the most polluted month of the year for not only the city of Slavonski Brod but also the entire country. This continued on into the early months of the following year, with elevated pollution levels all being shown until the month of May, when it started to abate and the more appreciable readings started to show.
The second most polluted city in Croatia, Lug, also followed a similar pattern, with a reading of 16.3 μg/m³ in September rapidly climbing to 38.5 μg/m³ in the following month. This reading, along with the 49.8 μg/m³ taken in Slavonski Brod in December 2019, put the air quality rating into the ‘unhealthy for sensitive groups’ bracket, which requires a PM2.5 reading of anywhere between 35.5 to 55.4 μg/m³ for classification. As the name implies, the air quality during this time is of great detriment to vulnerable portions of the population, and can cause an unfortunate spike in deaths amongst the elderly, as well as lifelong damage to younger members of the population, with allergies arising, as well as permanent changes to pulmonary system and well as the nervous system all being possible.
There are many other cities that follow this example, so in closing, the air quality starts to show a clear decline in correlation with the winter months, with PM2.5 levels rising in October and staying elevated until April or May of the following year.
Has Croatia improved its air quality?
With data available from the last few years, some comparisons can be made as to whether Croatia has improved its overall air quality. In 2018, Croatia came in with a yearly average PM2.5 reading of 22.18 μg/m³, which shows that its 2019 reading of 19.09 μg/m³ showed a fairly respectable improvement. The issue regarding yearly changes is to whether or not they represent an actual positive change in pollution saturation in the air, or they are just fluctuations that move up and down between the years. For the best and most critical comparison, the years of 2020 and beyond will need to be compiled and their averages calculated to see if the trend for Croatia’s improving air quality is a genuine step in the right direction.
Regardless of the long term causality, as it currently stands, any improvement in levels of air pollution is a positive step in the right direction, so it can be said that Croatia has improved on its air quality in recent times, with the following years post 2020 being the true indicators of whether this remains true.
When is the air quality at its cleanest in Croatia?
As a direct contrast to the previous question, as it was stated, the pollution levels decline at the end of the year and remain this way until April or May of the following year. So, to directly oppose the most polluted months, the time period between May and September is when Croatia sees its best and cleanest quality of air across all its cities, free from the haze, fumes, smoke and other pollutants that would otherwise be contaminating its atmosphere.
To use the most polluted city of Slavonski Brod as an example again, in the month of April, the PM2.5 reading came in at 20.4 μg/m³. This was directly followed in May by a vastly improved reading of 11.1 μg/m³, a number that was nearly half of the previous month, representing a fairly significant drop. This period lasted until September, when its cleanest yearly reading was taken, coming in within the WHO’s target goal of 10 μg/m³ or less, with a PM2.5 number of 9.5 μg/m³.
To use another city as an example of this pattern being demonstrated, the city of Desinic Gora sums this up very aptly. In March its PM2.5 reading was 21.8 μg/m³, followed immediately by a reading of 10 μg/m³ in April, a drop of more than half and a direct move from the ‘moderate’ pollution bracket to the WHO’s target group. From here on out till October, all of the readings came in with very respectable numbers, with five months out of the year coming in within the WHO’s target goal. So, as demonstrated by the numbers on record, the months of April through to September are when Croatia sees its best quality of air.
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