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The overriding theme of All Quiet on the Western Front is the terrible brutality of war, which informs every scene in the novel.All Quiet on the Western Front was one of the many books burned by the Nazi Party after Hitler took power, because of its representation of German soldiers as disillusioned and its perceived negative representation of Germany. The book was nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize in 1931.All Quiet on the Western Front begins streaming on Netflix on October 28, 2022. It premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival, was released in select theaters in Germany on September 29 and will open in US cinemas in October.
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All Quiet on the Western Front tells the gripping story of a young German soldier on the Western Front of World War I. Paul and his comrades experience first-hand how the initial euphoria of war turns into desperation and fear as they fight for their lives, and each other, in the trenches. The film from director Edward Berger is based on the world renowned bestseller of the same name by Erich Maria Remarque.
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All Quiet on the Western Front | Official Teaser | Netflix
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All Quiet on the Western Front – Wikipedia
All Quiet on the Western Front is a novel by Erich Maria Remarque, a German veteran of World War I. The book describes the German soldiers’ extreme physical …
Date Published: 2/6/2021
Watch All Quiet on the Western Front | Netflix Official Site
When 17-year-old Paul joins the Western Front in World War I, his initial excitement is soon shattered by the grim reality of life in the trenches.
Date Published: 6/6/2022
All Quiet on the Western Front – Rotten Tomatoes
All Quiet on the Western Front tells the gripping story of a young German soldier on the Western Front of World War I. Paul and his comrades experience …
Date Published: 8/3/2021
All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque
All Quiet on the Western Front is a novel by Erich Maria Remarque, a German veteran of World War I. The book describes the German soldiers’ extreme physical and …
Date Published: 7/9/2022
All Quiet on the Western Front – TIFF
This impassioned, visually arresting interpretation of the ic German anti-war novel makes the pacifist case to contemporary audiences through its depiction …
Date Published: 9/14/2021
All Quiet on the Western Front: A Novel – Amazon.com
Consered by many the greatest war novel of all time, All Quiet on the Western Front is Erich Maria Remarque’s masterpiece of the German experience during …
Date Published: 3/2/2021
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All Quiet on the Western Front
This article is about the 1929 novel. For other uses, see All Quiet on the Western Front (disambiguation)
Novel by Erich Maria Remarque
All Quiet on the Western Front (German: Im Westen nichts Neues, lit. ‘In the West Nothing New’) is a novel by Erich Maria Remarque, a German veteran of World War I. The book describes the German soldiers’ extreme physical and mental stress during the war, and the detachment from civilian life felt by many of these soldiers upon returning home from the front.
The novel was first published in November and December 1928 in the German newspaper Vossische Zeitung and in book form in late January 1929. The book and its sequel, The Road Back (1930), were among the books banned and burned in Nazi Germany. All Quiet on the Western Front sold 2.5 million copies in 22 languages in its first 18 months in print.
In 1930, the book was adapted as an Academy Award-winning film of the same name, directed by Lewis Milestone. It was adapted again in 1979 by Delbert Mann, this time as a television film starring Richard Thomas and Ernest Borgnine; and again in 2022 with the same name.
Title and translation [ edit ]
The English translation by Arthur Wesley Wheen gives the title as All Quiet on the Western Front. The literal translation of “Im Westen nichts Neues” is “Nothing New in the West,” with “West” being the Western Front; the phrase refers to the content of an official communiqué at the end of the novel.
Brian Murdoch’s 1993 translation rendered the phrase as “there was nothing new to report on the Western Front” within the narrative. However, in the foreword, he explains his retention of the original book title:
Although it does not match the German exactly, Wheen’s title has justly become part of the English language and is retained here with gratitude.
The phrase “all quiet on the Western Front” has become a colloquial expression meaning stagnation, or lack of visible change, in any context.
Murdoch also explains how, due to the time it was published, Wheen’s translation was obliged to Anglicise some lesser-known German references and lessen the impact of certain passages, while omitting others entirely. Murdoch’s translation is more accurate to the original text and completely unexpurgated.
Plot summary [ edit ]
The book tells the story of Paul Bäumer, who belongs to a group of German soldiers on the Western Front during World War I. The patriotic speeches of his teacher Kantorek had led the whole class to volunteer for the Imperial German Army shortly after the start of The Great War. He didn’t have any experience when going into the war but he went in with an open mind and a kind heart. Paul lived with his father, mother, and sister in a charming German village, and attended school. His class was “scattered over the platoons amongst Frisian fishermen, peasants, and laborers.” Bäumer arrives at the Western Front with his friends and schoolmates (Leer, Müller, Kropp, and a number of other characters). There they meet Stanislaus Katczinsky, an older soldier, nicknamed Kat, who becomes Paul’s mentor. While fighting at the front, Bäumer and his comrades have to engage in frequent battles and endure the treacherous and filthy conditions of trench warfare.
At the beginning of the book, Remarque writes, “This book is to be neither an accusation nor a confession, and least of all an adventure, for death is not an adventure to those who stand face to face with it. It will try simply to tell of a generation of men who, even though they may have escaped (its) shells, were destroyed by the war.” The book does not focus on heroic stories of bravery, but rather gives a view of the conditions in which the soldiers find themselves. The monotony between battles, the constant threat of artillery fire and bombardments, the struggle to find food, the lack of training of young recruits (meaning lower chances of survival), and the overarching role of random chance in the lives and deaths of the soldiers are described in detail.
The battles fought here have no names and seem to have little overall significance, except for the impending possibility of injury or death for Bäumer and his comrades. Only pitifully meager pieces of land are gained, about the size of a football field, which are often lost again later. Remarque often refers to the living soldiers as old and dead, emotionally drained and shaken. “We are not youth any longer. We don’t want to take the world by storm. We are fleeing from ourselves, from our life. We were eighteen and had begun to love life and the world; and we had to shoot it to pieces.”
Paul’s visiting his home highlights the cost of the war on his psyche. The town has not changed since he went off to war, but he has: he finds that he does “not belong here anymore, it is a foreign world.” He feels disconnected from most of the townspeople. His father asks him “stupid and distressing” questions about his war experiences, not understanding “that a man cannot talk of such things.” An old schoolmaster lectures him about strategy and advancing to Paris while insisting that Paul and his friends know only their “own little sector” of the war but nothing of the big picture.
Indeed, the only person he remains connected to is his dying mother, with whom he shares a tender, yet restrained relationship. The night before he is to return from leave, he stays up with her, exchanging small expressions of love and concern for each other. He thinks to himself, “Ah! Mother, Mother! How can it be that I must part from you? Here I sit and there you are dying; we have so much to say, and we shall never say it.” In the end, he concludes that he “ought never to have come [home] on leave.”
Paul feels glad to be reunited with his comrades. Soon after, he volunteers to go on a patrol and kills a man for the first time in hand-to-hand combat. He watches the man die, in pain for hours. He feels remorse and asks forgiveness from the man’s corpse. He is devastated and later confesses to Kat and Albert, who try to comfort him and reassure him that it is only part of the war. They are then sent on what Paul calls a “good job.” They must guard a supply depot in a village that was evacuated due to being shelled too heavily. During this time, the men are able to adequately feed themselves, unlike the near-starvation conditions in the German trenches. In addition, the men enjoy themselves while living off the spoils from the village and officers’ luxuries from the supply depot (such as fine cigars). While evacuating the villagers (enemy civilians), Paul and Albert are taken by surprise by artillery fired at the civilian convoy and wounded by a shell. On the train back home, Albert takes a turn for the worse and cannot complete the journey, instead being sent off the train to recuperate in a Catholic hospital. Paul uses a combination of bartering and manipulation to stay by Albert’s side. Albert eventually has his leg amputated, while Paul is deemed fit for service and returned to the front.
By now, the war is nearing its end and the German Army is retreating. In despair, Paul watches as his friends fall one by one. It is the death of Kat that eventually makes Paul careless about living. In the final chapter, he comments that peace is coming soon, but he does not see the future as bright and shining with hope. Paul feels that he has no aims or goals left in life and that their generation will be different and misunderstood.
In October 1918, Paul is finally killed on a remarkably peaceful day. The situation report from the frontline states a simple phrase: “All quiet on the Western Front.” Paul’s corpse displays a calm expression on its face, “as though almost glad the end had come.”
Themes [ edit ]
One of the major themes of the novel is the difficulty experienced by former soldiers trying to revert to civilian life after having experienced extreme combat situations. This internal destruction can be found as early as the first chapter as Paul comments that, although all the boys are young, their youth has already left them. In addition, the massive loss of life and negligible gains from the fighting are constantly emphasized. Soldiers’ lives are thrown away by their commanding officers who are stationed comfortably away from the front, ignorant and indifferent of the suffering and terror of the front lines.
Another major theme is the concept of blind nationalism. Remarque often emphasizes that the boys in his story were not forced to join the war effort against their will, but rather by a sense of patriotism and pride. Kantorek called Paul’s platoon the “Iron Youth”, teaching his students a romanticized version of warfare with glory and duty to the Fatherland. It is only when the boys go to war and have to live and fight in dirty, cramped trenches with little protection from enemy bullets and shells while contending with hunger and sickness that they realize just how dispiriting it is to actually serve in the army.
Main characters [ edit ]
Cover of the first English language edition. The design is based upon a German war bonds poster by Fritz Erler
Paul Bäumer [ edit ]
The central figure in the story.
Albert Kropp [ edit ]
Kropp was in Paul’s class at school and is described as the clearest thinker of the group as well as the smallest. Kropp is wounded towards the end of the novel and undergoes a leg amputation. Both he and Bäumer end up spending time in a Catholic hospital together, Bäumer suffering from shrapnel wounds to the leg and arm. Though Kropp initially plans to commit suicide if he requires an amputation, the book suggests he postponed suicide because of the strength of military camaraderie and a lack of a revolver. Kropp and Bäumer part ways when Bäumer is recalled to his regiment after recovering. Paul comments that saying farewell was “very hard, but it is something a soldier learns to deal with.”
Haie Westhus [ edit ]
Haie is described as being tall and strong, and a peat-digger by profession. Overall, his size and behavior make him seem older than Paul, yet he is the same age as Paul and his school-friends (roughly 19 at the start of the book). Haie, in addition, has a good sense of humour. During combat, he is injured in his back, fatally (Chapter 6)—the resulting wound is large enough for Paul to see Haie’s breathing lung when Himmelstoß (Himmelstoss) carries him to safety. He later dies of this injury.
Friedrich Müller [ edit ]
Müller is 19 and one of Bäumer’s classmates, when he also joins the German army as a volunteer to go to the war. Carrying his old school books with him to the battlefield, he constantly reminds himself of the importance of learning and education. Even while under enemy fire, he “mutters propositions in physics”. He became interested in Kemmerich’s boots and inherits them when Kemmerich dies early in the novel. He is killed later in the book after being shot point-blank in the stomach with a “light pistol” (flare gun). As he was dying “quite conscious and in terrible pain”, he gave his boots which he inherited from Kemmerich to Paul.
Stanislaus “Kat” Katczinsky [ edit ]
Kat has the most positive influence on Paul and his comrades on the battlefield. Katczinsky, a recalled reserve militiaman, was a cobbler in civilian life; he is older than Paul Bäumer and his comrades, about 40 years old, and serves as their leadership figure. He also represents a literary model highlighting the differences between the younger and older soldiers. While the older men have already had a life of professional and personal experience before the war, Bäumer and the men of his age have had little life experience or time for personal growth.
Kat is also well known for his ability to scavenge nearly any item needed, especially food. At one point he secures four boxes of lobster. Bäumer describes Kat as possessing a sixth sense. One night, Bäumer along with a group of other soldiers are held up in a factory with neither rations nor comfortable bedding. Katczinsky leaves for a short while, returning with straw to put over the bare wires of the beds. Later, to feed the hungry men, Kat brings bread, a bag of horse flesh, a lump of fat, a pinch of salt and a pan in which to cook the food.
Kat is hit by shrapnel at the end of the story, leaving him with a smashed shin. Paul carries him back to camp on his back, only to discover upon their arrival that a stray splinter had hit Kat in the back of the head and killed him on the way. He is thus the last of Paul’s close friends to die in battle. It is Kat’s death that eventually makes Bäumer indifferent as to whether he survives the war or not, yet certain that he can face the rest of his life without fear. “Let the months and the years come, they can take nothing from me, they can take nothing more. I am so alone, and so without hope that I can confront them without fear.”
Tjaden [ edit ]
“Tjaden” redirects here. For the architect, see Olive Frances Tjaden
One of Bäumer’s non-schoolmate friends. Before the war, Tjaden was a locksmith. A big eater with a grudge against the former postman-turned corporal Himmelstoß (thanks to his strict “disciplinary actions”), he manages to forgive Himmelstoß later in the book. Throughout the book, Paul frequently remarks on how much of an eater he is, yet somehow manages to stay as “thin as a rake”. He appears in the sequel, The Road Back.
Secondary characters [ edit ]
Kantorek [ edit ]
Kantorek was the schoolmaster of Paul and his friends, including Kropp, Leer, Müller, and Behm. Behaving “in a way that cost [him] nothing,” Kantorek is a strong supporter of the war and encourages Bäumer and other students in his class to join the war effort. Among twenty enlistees was Joseph Behm, the first of the class to die in battle. In an example of tragic irony, Behm was the only one who did not want to enter the war.
Kantorek is a hypocrite, urging the young men he teaches to fight in the name of patriotism, while not voluntarily enlisting himself. In a twist of fate, Kantorek is later called up as a soldier as well. He very reluctantly joins the ranks of his former students, only to be drilled and taunted by Mittelstädt, one of the students he had earlier persuaded to enlist.
Peter Leer [ edit ]
Leer is an intelligent soldier in Bäumer’s company, and one of his classmates. He is very popular with women; when he and his comrades meet three French women, he is the first to seduce one of them. Bäumer describes Leer’s ability to attract women by saying “Leer is an old hand at the game”. In chapter 11, Leer is hit by a shell fragment, which also hits Bertinck. The shrapnel tears open Leer’s hip, causing him to bleed to death quickly. His death causes Paul to ask himself, “What use is it to him now that he was such a good mathematician in school?”
Bertinck [ edit ]
Lieutenant Bertinck is the leader of Bäumer’s company. His men have a great respect for him, and Bertinck has great respect for his men. In the beginning of the book, he permits them to eat the rations of the men that had been killed in action, standing up to the chef Ginger who allowed them only their allotted share. Bertinck is genuinely despondent when he learns that few of his men had survived an engagement.
When he and the other characters are trapped in a trench under heavy attack, Bertinck, who has been injured in the firefight, spots a flamethrower team advancing on them. He gets out of cover and takes aim on the flamethrower but misses, and gets hit by enemy fire. With his next shot he kills the flamethrower, and immediately afterwards an enemy shell explodes on his position blowing off his chin. The same explosion also fatally wounds Leer.
Himmelstoss [ edit ]
Sergeant der Reserve Himmelstoß (spelled Himmelstoß as this is correct German spelling for Himmelstoss, which actually roughly means “Heaven-Bound” or “Heaven-Pushing” in German) was a village postman before being mobilised for the war and securing a position as a Sergeant in the Landwehr (Reserves of persons 28-39). Himmelstoss is a power-hungry martinet who compensated for his lack of social standing by abusing his position as the Training NCO for the men under his control, taking sadistic pleasure in punishing the minor infractions of his trainees during their basic training in preparation for their deployment. He had a special contempt for Paul and his friends, because of them knowing him as their local Postman. Paul later figures that the training taught by Himmelstoss made them “hard, suspicious, pitiless, and tough” but most importantly it taught them comradeship. Bäumer and his comrades have a chance to get back at Himmelstoss because of his punishments, mercilessly whipping him on the night before they board trains to go to the front.
Himmelstoss later joins them at the front, revealing himself as a coward who shirks his duties for fear of getting hurt or killed, and pretends to be wounded because of a scratch on his face. Paul Bäumer beats him because of it and when a lieutenant comes along looking for men for a trench charge, Himmelstoss joins and leads the charge. He carries Haie Westhus’s body to Bäumer after he is fatally wounded. Matured and repentant through his experiences Himmelstoß later asks for forgiveness from his previous charges. As he becomes the new staff cook, to prove his friendship he secures two pounds of sugar for Bäumer and half a pound of butter for Tjaden.
In the 1979 film adaptation, he is referred to as “Corporal” and wears a post 1941 shoulderboard for “Unteroffizier” which a section leading Sergeant.[clarify] He was, however, designed to be a Sergeant, which roughly equates to a Staff-Serjeant or “Unterfeldwebel” in the WW2 Parliance. This was a rank reserved for long serving “unteroffizieren” who fulfilled a staff role such as Quartermasters, Cooks, Clerks and so forth.
Detering [ edit ]
Detering is a farmer who constantly longs to return to his wife and farm. He is also fond of horses and is angered when he sees them used in combat. He says, “It is of the vilest baseness to use horses in the war,” when the group hears several wounded horses writhe and scream for a long time before dying during a bombardment. He tries to shoot them to put them out of their misery, but is stopped by Kat to keep their current position hidden. He is driven to desert when he sees a cherry tree in blossom, which reminds him of home too much and inspires him to leave. He is found by military police and court-martialed and is never heard from again.
Josef Hamacher [ edit ]
Hamacher is a patient at the Catholic hospital where Paul and Albert Kropp are temporarily stationed. He has an intimate knowledge of the workings of the hospital. He also has a “Special Permit,” certifying him as sporadically not responsible for his actions due to a head wound, though he is clearly quite sane and exploiting his permit so he can stay in the hospital and away from the war as long as possible.
Franz Kemmerich [ edit ]
A young boy of only 19 years. Franz Kemmerich had enlisted in the army for World War I along with his best friend and classmate, Bäumer. Kemmerich is shot in the leg early in the story; his injured leg has to be amputated, and he dies shortly after. In anticipation of Kemmerich’s imminent death, Müller was eager to get his boots. While in the hospital, someone steals Kemmerich’s watch that he intended to give to his mother, causing him great distress and prompting him to ask about his watch every time his friends visit him in the hospital. Paul later finds the watch and hands it over to Kemmerich’s mother, only to lie and say Franz died instantly and painlessly when questioned.
Joseph Behm [ edit ]
A student in Paul’s class who is described as youthful and overweight. Behm was the only student that was not quickly influenced by Kantorek’s patriotism to join the war, but eventually, due to pressure from friends and Kantorek, he joins the war. He is the first of Paul’s friends to die. He is blinded in no man’s land and believed to be dead by his friends. The next day, when he is seen walking blindly around no man’s land, it is discovered that he was only unconscious, but he is killed before he can be rescued.
Publication and reception [ edit ]
Dutch translation, 1929
From November 10 to December 9, 1928, All Quiet on the Western Front was published in serial form in Vossische Zeitung magazine. It was released in book form the following year to smashing success, selling one and a half million copies that same year. It was the best-selling work of fiction in America for the year 1929, according to Publishers Weekly. Although publishers had worried that interest in World War I had waned more than 10 years after the armistice, Remarque’s realistic depiction of trench warfare from the perspective of young soldiers struck a chord with the war’s survivors—soldiers and civilians alike—and provoked strong reactions, both positive and negative, around the world.
With All Quiet on the Western Front, Remarque emerged as an eloquent spokesman for a generation that had been, in his own words, “destroyed by war, even though it might have escaped its shells.” Remarque’s harshest critics, in turn, were his countrymen, many of whom felt the book denigrated the German war effort, and that Remarque had exaggerated the horrors of war to further his pacifist agenda. The strongest voices against Remarque came from the emerging Nazi Party and its ideological allies. In 1933, when the Nazis rose to power, All Quiet on the Western Front became one of the first degenerate books to be publicly burnt; in 1930, screenings of the Academy Award-winning film based on the book were met with Nazi-organized protests and mob attacks on both movie theatres and audience members.
Objections to Remarque’s portrayal of the World War I German soldiers were not limited to those of the Nazis in 1933. Dr. Karl Kroner [de] was concerned about Remarque’s depiction of the medical personnel as being inattentive, uncaring, or absent from frontline action. Dr. Kroner was specifically worried that the book would perpetuate German stereotypes abroad that had subsided since the First World War. He offered the following clarification: “People abroad will draw the following conclusions: if German doctors deal with their own fellow countrymen in this manner, what acts of inhumanity will they not perpetuate against helpless prisoners delivered up into their hands or against the populations of occupied territory?”
A fellow patient of Remarque’s in the military hospital in Duisburg objected to the negative depictions of the nuns and patients, and of the general portrayal of soldiers: “There were soldiers to whom the protection of homeland, protection of house and homestead, protection of family were the highest objective, and to whom this will to protect their homeland gave the strength to endure any extremities.”
These criticisms suggest that perhaps experiences of the war and the personal reactions of individual soldiers to their experiences may be more diverse than Remarque portrays them; however, it is beyond question that Remarque gives voice to a side of the war and its experience that was overlooked or suppressed at the time. This perspective is crucial to understanding the true effects of World War I. The evidence can be seen in the lingering depression that Remarque and many of his friends and acquaintances were suffering a decade later.
The book was also banned in other European countries on the ground of it being considered anti-war propaganda; Austrian soldiers were forbidden from reading the book in 1929, and Czechoslovakia banned it from its military libraries. The Italian translation was also banned in 1933. When the Nazis were re-militarizing Germany’s military the book was banned as it was deemed counterproductive to German rearmament.
In contrast, All Quiet on the Western Front was trumpeted by pacifists as an anti-war book. Remarque makes a point in the opening statement that the novel does not advocate any political position, but is merely an attempt to describe the experiences of the soldier.
Much of the literary criticism came from Salomo Friedlaender, who wrote a book Hat Erich Maria Remarque wirklich gelebt? “Did Erich Maria Remarque really live?” (under the pen name Mynona), which was, in its turn, criticized in: Hat Mynona wirklich gelebt? “Did Mynona really live?” by Kurt Tucholsky. Friedlaender’s criticism was mainly personal in nature—he attacked Remarque as being ego-centric and greedy. Remarque publicly stated that he wrote All Quiet on the Western Front for personal reasons, not for profit, as Friedlaender had charged. Max Joseph Wolff [de] wrote a parody titled Vor Troja nichts Neues (All quiet before the gates of Troy) under the pseudonym Emil Marius Requark.
Adaptations [ edit ]
Film [ edit ]
All Quiet on the Western Front (1930), featuring star Poster for the movie(1930), featuring star Lew Ayres
Television film [ edit ]
Music [ edit ]
Radio [ edit ]
All Quiet on the Western Front, a 2008 radio adaptation broadcast on BBC Radio 3, starring Robert Lonsdale and Shannon Graney, written by Dave Sheasby, and directed by David Hunter.
Audiobooks [ edit ]
All Quiet on the Western Front, a 2000 Recorded Books audiobook of the text, read by Frank Muller.
All Quiet on the Western Front, a 2010 Hachette Audio UK audiobook narrated by Tom Lawrence.
Comics [ edit ]
“All Quiet on the Western Front”, a 1952 comic book adaptation as part of the Classics Illustrated series.
See also [ edit ]
All Quiet on the Western Front: Themes
Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.
The Horror of War
The overriding theme of All Quiet on the Western Front is the terrible brutality of war, which informs every scene in the novel. Whereas war novels before All Quiet on the Western Front tended to romanticize what war was like, emphasizing ideas such as glory, honor, patriotic duty, and adventure, All Quiet on the Western Front sets out to portray war as it was actually experienced, replacing the romantic picture of glory and heroism with a decidedly unromantic vision of fear, meaninglessness, and butchery. In many ways, World War I demanded this depiction more than any war before it—it completely altered mankind’s conception of military conflict with its catastrophic levels of carnage and violence, its battles that lasted for months, and its gruesome new technological advancements (e.g., machine guns, poison gas, trenches) that made killing easier and more impersonal than ever before. Remarque’s novel dramatizes these aspects of World War I and portrays the mind-numbing terror and savagery of war with a relentless focus on the physical and psychological damage that it occasions. At the end of the novel, almost every major character is dead, epitomizing the war’s devastating effect on the generation of young men who were forced to fight it.
The Effect of War on the Soldier
Because All Quiet on the Western Front is set among soldiers fighting on the front, one of its main focuses is the ruinous effect that war has on the soldiers who fight it. These men are subject to constant physical danger, as they could literally be blown to pieces at any moment. This intense physical threat also serves as an unceasing attack on the nerves, forcing soldiers to cope with primal, instinctive fear during every waking moment. Additionally, the soldiers are forced to live in appalling conditions—in filthy, waterlogged ditches full of rats and decaying corpses and infested with lice. They frequently go without food and sleep, adequate clothing, or sufficient medical care. They are forced, moreover, to deal with the frequent, sudden deaths of their close friends and comrades, often in close proximity and in extremely violent fashion. Remarque portrays the overall effect of these conditions as a crippling overload of panic and despair. The only way for soldiers to survive is to disconnect themselves from their feelings, suppressing their emotions and accepting the conditions of their lives.
In Remarque’s view, this emotional disconnection has a hugely destructive impact on a soldier’s humanity; Paul, for instance, becomes unable to imagine a future without the war and unable to remember how he felt in the past. He also loses his ability to speak to his family. Soldiers no longer pause to mourn fallen friends and comrades; when Kemmerich is on his deathbed, at the beginning of the novel, the most pressing question among his friends is who will inherit his boots. Among the living soldiers, however, Remarque portrays intense bonds of loyalty and friendship that spring up as a result of the shared experience of war. These feelings are the only romanticized element of the novel and are virtually the only emotions that preserve the soldiers’ fundamental humanity.
Nationalism and Political Power
In many ways, the precipitating cause of World War I was the ethic of nationalism, the idea that competing nation-states were a fundamental part of existence, that one owed one’s first loyalty to one’s nation, and that one’s national identity was the primary component of one’s overall identity. The ethic of nationalism was not new, but it had reached new heights of intensity in the nineteenth century, and this fervor generally carried over into the start of World War I.
In its depiction of the horror of war, All Quiet on the Western Front presents a scathing critique of the idea of nationalism, showing it to be a hollow, hypocritical ideology, a tool used by those in power to control a nation’s populace. Paul and his friends are seduced into joining the army by nationalist ideas, but the experience of fighting quickly schools them in nationalism’s irrelevance in the face of the war’s horrors. The relative worthlessness on the battlefield of the patriots Kantorek and Himmelstoss accentuates the inappropriateness of outmoded ideals in modern warfare. Remarque illustrates that soldiers on the front fight not for the glory of their nation but rather for their own survival; they kill to keep from being killed. Additionally, Paul and his friends do not consider the opposing armies to be their real enemies; in their view, their real enemies are the men in power in their own nation, who they believe have sacrificed them to the war simply to increase their own power and glory.
All Quiet on the Western Front | Summary, Characters, Analysis, & Facts
All Quiet on the Western Front All Quiet on the Western Front, novel by German writer Erich Maria Remarque, published in 1929 as Im Westen nichts Neues and in the United States as All Quiet on the Western Front. An antiwar novel set during World War I, it relies on Remarque’s personal experience in the war to depict the era’s broader disillusionment. The book is an account of Paul Baumer’s experiences in battle and his short career as a soldier, and it is primarily concerned with the effect of war on young men. Its title, which is in the language of routine communiqués, is typical of its nonchalant terse style, which graphically records the daily horrors of war in laconic understatement. Its refusal to take an explicit stance on war was in shocking contrast to the patriotic rhetoric typical of the time, especially in Germany. The book was an immediate international success, though it had many critics.
Plot summary All Quiet on the Western Front tells the story of a group of young Germans who enlist in World War I after being captivated by slogans of patriotism and honour. It is narrated by the protagonist, Paul Baumer, who is 20 years old. The young men soon learn that the romanticized version of war that was described to them is nothing like the battlefields they encounter. The novel opens with the group having just been relieved from their position on the front lines. Kemmerich, one of Paul’s classmates, has suffered a wound in his thigh that resulted in amputation, and some of the soldiers go to visit him in St. Joseph’s hospital. They quickly realize that Kemmerich will die there, and Müller, another of the soldiers, asks Kemmerich for his boots, a moment that is discomforting but irreproachably logical. Paul visits Kemmerich again, alone, and during this visit Kemmerich dies; Paul calls out for help, and a doctor refers him to an orderly. No one, however, provides any aid, because the staff is more concerned with preparing the soon-to-be-empty bed for a new patient. Kemmerich becomes the 17th soldier to die that day, and his body is quickly removed. Britannica Quiz The Literary World (Famous Novels) How much do you really know about the stories and the authors of the classics you love, from Jane Eyre to Brave New World? Paul and his friends, hungry and tired, are delighted when their friend Katczinsky (“Kat”) returns after a search for food with two loaves of bread and a bag of raw horsemeat. Kat, Paul explains, has always been uncannily resourceful. Paul also introduces the cruel drill sergeant Himmelstoss, a former postman with whom Paul and his friends are frequently in conflict. After spending some time relieved from the front line, their regiment is called up once again. When night comes, they fall asleep to the sound of exploding shells. When they awake, they hear sounds of an impending attack. Wails of wounded horses pierce the silence between explosions, and the gory sight of their injuries unsettles everybody deeply. Soon after, an attack is launched, and chaos ensues. Poison gas and shells infiltrate the group. When the fighting finally stops, the carnage is gruesome. The trenches are bombarded a number of times as the novel continues, until finally the soldiers are sent off-duty to take a break while they await reinforcements. Himmelstoss, who had recently made his first appearance in the trenches, makes efforts to get along better with the group. While bathing in a canal, Paul and some of his friends encounter three French girls, who they sneak out at night to meet. Paul then learns that he has been granted 17 days of leave. When he gets home, he learns that his mother has cancer. He feels disconnected from people he once felt close to, and he cannot understand the things that occupy their minds. He visits Kemmerich’s mother, who questions him about her son’s death. After a difficult conversation with his own mother, Paul wishes he had never come on leave, believing that he has changed far too much to live as he once did. Paul next spends four weeks at a training camp before heading back to the front. Across from the base is a camp for Russian prisoners; Paul witnesses and ruminates on how similar his enemies look to his neighbours. He eventually returns to his regiment. He and his friends are given new clothing in preparation for a visit from someone implied to be the German emperor William II, referred to in the novel as the Kaiser, who will be doing an inspection. After the Kaiser leaves, Paul becomes lost at night during battle and, while hiding in a shell hole during a bombardment, stabs a French soldier who falls in. He watches as the man dies, desperately trying to help him by giving him water and dressing the wound he inflicted. When the man dies, Paul is delusional with shame. He finds a picture of the man’s wife and child in his breast pocket along with letters. He waits in the hole with the dead man for hours upon hours, until he feels it is safe enough to return to his regiment’s trench. When Paul returns, he, Kat, and six others are sent to guard a village, where they find lots of food to eat. They are later sent to another village to help evacuate civilians. During the evacuation, however, the French bombard the town, and Paul and his friend Albert Kropp are injured. Albert’s leg is amputated. Paul undergoes surgery and is sent back to the front lines. Paul’s friends begin to die one by one. Kat is hit while searching for food, and, afraid that he doesn’t have time to wait, Paul carries him to the dressing station. When they arrive, however, Kat has already died. Paul becomes the last of his seven classmates. The novel then shifts away from Paul’s first-person perspective and ends with an announcement that Paul has died. The army report issued on the day of his death stated only this: All quiet on the Western Front.
Context and analysis Remarque used his personal experience as a German soldier to write All Quiet on the Western Front. He was drafted at age 18, and he fought on the Western Front of World War I, where he witnessed many of the atrocities he later depicted in the novel. All Quiet on the Western Front works both as a vehicle for overwhelmingly realistic and graphic depictions of war and as a mode of underscoring the disillusionment of the period. Remarque tied his individual experience to something much larger and more abstract: the novel, while focusing specifically on the German-French conflict in World War I, expresses sentiments about the contemporary nature of war itself. Paul’s self-reflection and the conversations between the soldiers feature not only ghastly images but ghastly truths about the effects of war on young soldiers. For example, when engaged in one of these conversations, one of the soldiers says, Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now …almost all of us are simple folk. And in France, too, the majority of men are labourers, workmen, or poor clerks. Now just why would a French blacksmith or a French shoemaker want to attack us? No, it is merely the rulers. I had never seen a Frenchman before I came here, and it will be just the same with the majority of Frenchmen as regards us. They weren’t asked about it any more than we were. This notion of a gulf between those who declare war and those who fight it is present throughout All Quiet on the Western Front, but the gulf between those fighting on opposing sides shrinks as the novel progresses. Paul begins to see his enemies as people rather than faceless targets, a transformation that culminates in an intensely intimate scene of delusional guilt as he watches a French soldier die slowly from a wound he inflicted. All Quiet on the Western Front also addresses the disillusionment of the public, specifically that of German citizens. Paul and his fellow students enlisted in the war because of their previous schoolmaster, Mr. Kantorek, who had spouted patriotic propaganda at them when they were students, imploring them to enlist. Paul also recalls how the newspapers would, at times, report that troops were in such good spirits that they would organize dances before heading out on the front line. Paul explains that he and his fellow soldiers did not behave in this way out of genuine good humour but instead “because otherwise we should go to pieces.” Remarque captured the nuances of the disconnect that Paul experiences, especially when he interacts with non-soldiers or new recruits. Paul’s laconic manner of depicting the carnage he experiences serves as a method of distancing himself from the horrors. The novel’s unflinching realism places All Quiet on the Western Front among the most accurate written depictions of World War I, but its philosophical sentiments are applicable to any war. The novel’s disclaimer insists that it is not an accusation, yet the entirety of the novel accuses war as an institution of stealing young boys’ lives, regardless of whether they died on the battlefield or survived forever changed.
All Quiet on the Western Front review – anti-war nightmare of bloodshed and chaos
Erich Maria Remarque’s anti-war classic gets its first German-language adaptation for the screen, after the Hollywood versions of 1930 and 1979; it’s a powerful, eloquent, conscientiously impassioned film from director and co-writer Edward Berger. Newcomer Felix Kammerer plays Paul, the German teenage boy who joins up with his schoolfriends in a naive patriotic fervour towards the end of the first world war, excitedly looking forward to an easy, swaggering march into Paris. Instead, he finds himself in a nightmare of bloodshed and chaos.
For generations of British readers, the story provided the symmetrical complement to similar agony behind the Allied lines, a book read in tandem with, say, Wilfred Owen’s poetry. It was that intertextual, mirror-image combination which in some ways established the dimension of absurdist insanity that later anti-war works such as Catch-22 would build on. The original German title, Im Westen Nichts Neues (“In the West Nothing New”), brilliantly rendered as “all quiet on the western front” in 1929 by Australian translator Arthur Wheen, is a phrase from a factual military report endowed with an awful irony. The western front is only quiet for the dead.
Young Paul is this movie’s Known Soldier, the symbol of innocence ruined, his fresh-faced openness caked in a blood-and-mud mask of horror. He is marooned in the ordeal of static trench warfare, all the more wrenchingly futile as this is taking place towards the end of the war, and cowed German representatives are arriving to sign the capitulation in the French railway carriage at Compiègne. Daniel Brühl plays civilian politician Magnus Erzberger who led the German delegation; Thibault de Montalembert has a cameo as Marshal Foch, contemptuously rejecting any face-saving concessions to the Germans. The story is to reach a climax of nausea after the signing, when an enraged German general declares to his exhausted and traumatised troops that they have time for one last battle to save the fatherland’s honour before 11 o’clock, the hour of the armistice.
Paul’s comrades are Müller (Moritz Klaus), Kropp (Aaron Hilmer), Tjaden (Edin Hasanović) and most importantly the older and more careworn professional soldier Katczinsky, or “Kat” – a tremendous performance from Albrecht Schuch. Kat is to be the boys’ elder brother figure, or perhaps even father figure, or even a figure of their own alternative selves, with more protective disillusion. Paul and Kat’s raid on a French farmhouse for food becomes an uproarious caper; later, they are seated together on the log over the latrine trench (a feature of the first world war that also appears in Peter Jackson’s They Shall Not Grow Old) and illiterate Kat asks Paul to read aloud to him a letter from his wife, which excruciatingly reveals a private family tragedy.
All Quiet on the Western Front is a substantial, serious work, acted with urgency and focus and with battlefield scenes whose digital fabrications are expertly melded into the action. It never fails to do justice to its subject matter, though is perhaps conscious of its own classic status. Perhaps nothing in it quite matches the shudder of the brutal opening sequence of the war machine: a soldier is killed and his uniform is removed from his corpse, washed and mended with all the others and then dished out to raw recruit Paul with the dead man’s name tag accidentally left on the collar, to Paul’s bewilderment. (“Just too small for the fellow – it happens all the time!” explains the quartermaster hurriedly, snapping off the label.) The entire drama is flavoured with this grim premonition of death.
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All Quiet on the Western Front
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All Quiet on the Western Front
… all the memories that come … are always completely calm … They are soundless apparitions that speak to me, with looks and gestures silently, without any word … They are quiet in this way because quietness is so unattainable for us now … Their stillness is the reason why these memories of former times do not awaken desire so much as sorrow – a vast, inapprehensible melancholy. Once we had such desires- but they return not. They are past, they belong to another world that is gone from us.
They stand at the wire fence … Most of them are silent … I see their dark forms, their beards move in the wind. Their life is obscure and guiltless; – if I could know more of them, what their names are, how they live, what they are waiting for, then my emotion would have an object and might become sympathy. But as it is I perceive behind them only the suffering of the creature, the awful melancholy of life … a word of command might transform them into our friends … I take out my cigarettes, break each one in half, and give them to the Russians.
He opens his eyes. He must have heard me, for he gazes at me with a look of utter terror … I bend forward, shake my head and whisper: “No, no, no,” I raise one hand, I must show him that I want to help him, I stroke his forehead … “I want to help you, Comrade, camerade, camerade, camerade – “ eagerly repeating the word, to make him understand … In the afternoon, about three, he is dead … My state is getting worse, I can no longer control my thoughts … The dead man might have had thirty more years of life … I speak to him and say to him: “Comrade, I did not want to kill you … you were only an idea to me … It was that abstraction that I stabbed. But now, for the first time, I see you are a man like me … Forgive me, comrade. We always see too late … “
Of Kantorek, their schoolmaster – “I can see him now, as he used to glare at us through his spectacles and say in a moving voice: ‘Won’t you join up, Comrades?’ … We can’t blame Kantorek for this, there were thousands of Kantoreks, all of them convinced that they were acting for the best – in a way that cost them nothing.
And that is why they let us down so badly.
“We feel in our blood that a contact has shot home … It is the front, the consciousness of the front, that makes this contact. The moment that the first shells whistle over and the air is rent with the explosions there is suddenly in our veins, in our hands, in our eyes a tense waiting, a watching, a heightening alertness, a strange sharpening of the senses. The body with one bound is in full readiness … Every time it is the same.
By far the most important result of our training was that it awakened in us a strong, practical sense of esprit de corps, which in the field developed into the finest thing that arose out of the war – comradeship.
I breathe deeply and say to myself: – “You are at home, you are at home.” But a sense of strangeness will not leave me, I cannot feel at home amongst these things. There is my mother, there is my sister, there my case of butterflies, and there is the mahogany piano – but I am not myself there. There is a distance, a veil between us.
I want to think myself back into that time. It is still in the room, I feel it at once, the walls have preserved it … I want to feel the same powerful, nameless urge that I used to feel when I turned to my books … The backs of the books stand in rows … I remember arranging them in order. I implore them with my eyes: Speak to me – take me up – take me, Life of my Youth – you who are care-free, beautiful – receive me again – Images float through my mind, but they do not grip me, they are mere shadows and memories. Nothing – nothing – … I cannot find my way back, I am shut out though I entreat earnestly and put forth all my strength. Nothing stirs; listless and wretched, like a condemned man, I sit and the past withdraws itself.
I take one of the books, intending to read … take out another … take up fresh books. Already they are piled up beside me … I stand there dumb … Dejected.
Words, Words, Words – they do not reach me.
Slowly I place the books back on the shelves. Nevermore.
Our early life is cut off from the moment we came here … All the older men are linked with their previous life. They have wives, children, occupations, and interests, they have a background which is so strong that the war cannot obliterate it. We young men of twenty, however, have only our parents, and some, perhaps, a girl … some enthusiasm, a few hobbies, and our school. Beyond this our life did not extend. And of this nothing remains.
Now if we go back (after the war) we will be weary, broken, burnt out, rootless, and without hope. We will not be able to find our way any more. And men will not understand us – for the generation that grew up before us, though it has passed these years with us already had a home and a calling; now it will return to its old occupations, and the war will be forgotten – and the generation that has grown up after us will be strange to us and push us aside. We will be superfluous even to ourselves, we will grow old, a few will adapt themselves, some others will merely submit, and most will be bewildered; – the years will pass by and in the end we shall fall into ruin.
But perhaps all this that I think is mere melancholy and dismay … It cannot be that it has gone, the yearning that made our blood unquiet, … the thousand faces of the future … it cannot be that this has vanished in bombardment, in despair, in brothels.
Let the years and months come, they can take nothing from me, they can take nothing more. I am so alone, and so without hope that I can confront them without fear. The life that has borne me through these years is still in my hands and my eyes. Whether I have subdued it, I know not. But so long as it is there it will seek its own way out, heedless of the will that is within me.
I got to wondering how much action Remarque had seen in the war. Not much, it turns out.Conscripted at age 18 (he became 18 on 22 June 1916); so in the second half of 1916, or early in 1917. On 12 June 1917 he was transferred to the Western front, the Field Depot of the 2nd Guards Reserve Division at Hem-Lenglet (northern France, somewhere around Cambrai).Two weeks later he was posted to the 15th Reserve Infantry regiment, Engineer Platoon, stationed between Torhout and Houthult. These towns are both in West Flanders (Belgium), not far north of Ypres, in the area that the Germans referred to as the “Flanders Position”.On 31 July, about a month after that, he was wounded by shrapnel (leg, arm, neck) and spent the rest of the war in an army hospital in Germany.July 31 was, probably not coincidentally, the opening day of the battle known as Third Ypres, or Passchendaele. The bombardment preceding the battle had started fifteen days earlier, and by the time the shelling ended at 4 am on the 31st, over 4 million shells had been fired at the German positions. It seems likely that Remarque received his injuries as a result of the bombardment, or the ensuing British advance that day.We must assume that this was fortunate for young Remarque. Not only did he miss most of Third Ypres, which lasted over three months, into November, and likely resulted in between 50,000 and 100,000 German deaths; but he also missed the German last-gasp offensives of 1918, in which the German Army sustained close to a million casualties.Thus the battle scenes which are related indo not likely describe things that Remarque personally experienced in the war. It is a work of fiction, not a memoir of a surviving soldier who experienced battle in the trenches (as is Robert Graves’ Goodbye To All That ).is the story of Private Paul Baumer’s experiences in the Great War. Remarque knew some of these experiences first-hand; the rest, at least in their general outline, he no doubt heard from survivors of the war who he talked with in later years.The story first appeared in several issues of a German newspaper in 1928. It was then published in book form in early 1929. In the ten years after the war Remarque no doubt thought repeatedly and deeply about what we find in the story.In my copy of the book, a brief essay appears after the story by G.J. Meyer. Meyer points out that this delayed appearance of the novel worked in its favor, at least in the English speaking world. Had the novel appeared in the early ‘20s he thinks it would have found a German audience almost exclusively. In both America and Britain, Germany was still under the pall of the “relentless propaganda” of the war years – the narratives claiming that the war was Germany’s fault, that the German armies had acted in “loathsome” ways, that the Allied victory had been necessary to “save civilization”. A story eliciting sympathy for a German soldier would have found few receptive readers. By the late 1920s such notions were fading.The novel has found a place at the forefront of anti-war fiction. Within a few years of its publication it was being burned by the Nazis, who viewed its anti-war sentiments, and its depiction of, in Meyer’s words, “a disillusioned and demoralized German soldiery” to be “intolerably offensive.” Remarque himself, living in Switzerland, was out of their reach, but his sister was beheaded by the Nazis in 1943 after she had stated that she considered the Second war lost. (See Wiki .)For more on reactions to the book, see Receptions The world of Remarque’s war story can be divided, neither surprisingly nor originally, into two separate areas of reality, internal and external. External reality, the, is the world outside of Paul Baumer, the world he perceives through his senses. Internal reality, the, is a separate place, inhabited by Paul’s memories, emotions, and thoughts.There is also a part of the outer world which forms a connection between these two realities: the part comprised of other people, most importantly of his fellow soldiers. People in this third world are of course external to Paul. But because they each have their own inner world, they can communicate their thoughts and memories and emotions to Paul and to each other.Paul Baumer’s outer world, even this world of war, includes many different human experiences and their corresponding play on the emotions – comprised as it is of …Most persistently it is a horrifying world, tilted precariously toward experiences which work dreadful injury on the inner world. For me the worst of the experiences was related thus:Without other human beings to share that outer world with, could any person survive? If all the rest were machines? Or shut you off from contact with them?At a prisoner of war camp, guarding Russians, Paul begins to sense that the enemy toocomrades.Then the revelation, under duress, that one enemya comrade, a brother-in-arms. Paul attacks a French soldier who has stumbled into his shell-hole, mortally wounding him, and listens to him dying hour after hour.And comrades share not only the outer world, but the inner world also. Though each has his own version, they are much alike. At least Paul very reasonably thinks so, since he often says “we” instead of “I” when narrating thoughts and feelings inhabiting the inner world:Paul’s memory torments him. Memories come to him, but the thing remembered has lost the meaning that it once had for him. The essential nature of the reality behind the memory has dissipated, then vanished entirely. It’s not that the thing remembered no longer exists, as for example a memory of a long-dead friend or loved one. The person is still alive. But thethat bound Paul to the person has disappeared, and this has happened because of how the outer world of the war has changed him.The inability to connect with the objects of memory is emphasized to an excruciating degree in the chapter on Paul’s return home on leave.He has a premonition of this even as he walks home from the train station: every common sight, the bridge he has crossed a thousand times, the shops he has visited all his life, strike him not as a familiar and welcome landscape, but as sharp, almost breath-takingof things which stand out in surprising relief. At his home, he opens the door with its worn latch, and is assaulted, overcome withof his mother, his sister, his home, his former life … “against my will the tears run down my cheeks”.But it is not till later, sitting by his mother’s bed, that he becomes conscious of the reason for those tears.Paul knows that it is he who has changed. “I now see that I have been crushed without knowing it. I find I do not belong here any more, it is a foreign world.”In his room, Paul confronts his bookshelves. Second-hand classics, “collected works”, moderns, some books borrowed and not returned “because I did not want to part with them”. Schoolbooks.And when his leave is finally up, and he must go back?The names of the train stations he had passed on the way home, which had caused his heart to tremble, which had caused him to stand at the window, to hold the frame – those names which marked “the boundaries of my youth”? Paul has learned that though he could recross that border, what is on the other side is no longer his youth, but a strange, heartbreaking land of ghosts, phantoms, silent markers of a former life gone forever.This dissolution of memory wends in and out of a series of thoughts that grip him: that the war has first robbed him of these vital aspects of his memories; but has also, uniquely to young men like him and his friends, removed the very ground of their future lives – if they do have future lives.Paul and his cohort of friends, those drafted right out of school and thrown into the maelstrom,This theme of Remarque’s struck me powerfully, because I often thought when I was in college, and still think, that I had not reallyliving until I entered college. It was only then, when I met people from parts of the world outside “the boundaries of my youth”, people with different thoughts and ideas from those of my small-town childhood, and when I was introduced to subjects I had never imagined – philosophy, theology, literary criticism – that I realized that those 17 years prior to college were a- not life itself.As Paul reflects in the second chapter,Those things – parents, girl, hobbies, school – are all nothing butto life. And not only are they gone, having been left behind as he entered the war, but Paul now knows that even theof these preludes to life are dissolved, disconnected from him.Real life itself had not yet started. The preludes, the foundation on which others have built their lives, are gone. Kantorek, their schoolmaster, “would say that we stood on the threshold of life. And so it would seem. We had as yet taken no root. The war swept us away. For the others, the older men, it is but an interruption … We know only that in some strange and melancholy way we have become a waste land.”The preludes (prologues) to life are irretrievable – what should have followed, the main event, their real lives, possibly built on these foundations, can never occur.Paul Baumer, and his compatriots, are indeed a “lost generation”. The phrase itself is not used by Remarque, but both “lost” and “generation” appear over and over in Paul’s thoughts. (view spoiler) The last paragraph is somewhat up-beat, in an existential way.But perhaps life will reassert itself, heedless of whatAnd so the story ends.A dedication: … to comrades … and to the shimmering anti-war reputation of All Quiet [“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>[“br”]>
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사람들이 주제에 대해 자주 검색하는 키워드 All Quiet on the Western Front | Official Teaser | Netflix
- Aaron Hilmer
- Adrian Grünewald
- Albert Kropp
- Albrecht Schuch
- Daniel Brühl
- Devid Striesow
- Edin Hasanovic
- Erich Maria Remarque
- Felix Kammerer
- Franz Müller
- General Ferdinand Foch
- General Friedrich
- Ludwig Behm
- Matthias Erzberger
- Moritz Klaus
- Paul Bäumer
- Stanislaus ‘Kat’ Katczinsky
- Thibault De Montalembert
- Tjaden Stackfleet
- first world war
- the great war
- world war one
All #Quiet #on #the #Western #Front #| #Official #Teaser #| #Netflix
YouTube에서 all quiet on the western front 주제의 다른 동영상 보기
주제에 대한 기사를 시청해 주셔서 감사합니다 All Quiet on the Western Front | Official Teaser | Netflix | all quiet on the western front, 이 기사가 유용하다고 생각되면 공유하십시오, 매우 감사합니다.