# Bandwidth Delay Product | Bandwidth Delay Product 상위 106개 답변

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Bandwidth delay product is a measurement of how many bits can fill up a network link. It gives the maximum amount of data that can be transmitted by the sender at a given time before waiting for acknowledgment. Thus it is the maximum amount of unacknowledged data.In data communications, the bandwidth-delay product is the product of a data link’s capacity (in bits per second) and its round-trip delay time (in seconds).Gain-bandwidth Product= Gain x Frequency

An example of gain-bandwidth product calculation: If an op amp has an open-loop gain of 20 at 100KHz, it has a gain of 10 at 200KHz, a gain of 5 at 400KHz, and a gain of 1 at 2MHz. In each calculation, the gain-bandwidth product is equal to the gain x frequency= 2MHz.

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## bandwidth delay product 주제에 대한 자세한 내용은 여기를 참조하세요.

### Bandwidth-delay product – Wikipedia

In data communications, the bandwth-delay product is the product of a data link’s capacity (in bits per second) and its round-trip delay time (in seconds) …

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Source: en.wikipedia.org

Date Published: 10/23/2021

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### Bandwidth Delay Product – NetworkLessons.com

A LFN is a network that offers a high bandwth but also a very high delay. An example could be a satellite connection. These connections offer a high bandwth …

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Source: networklessons.com

Date Published: 12/1/2022

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### What is the Bandwidth * Delay Product ? :: SG FAQ

The Bandwth*Delay Product, or BDP for short determines the amount of data that can be in transit in the network. It is the product of the availalbe …

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Source: www.speedguide.net

Date Published: 7/19/2021

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### Bandwidth Delay Product – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

The rate at which it can return to its original flow rate is bounded by the round-trip time (RTT) of the network. When the product of the bandwth of the …

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Source: www.sciencedirect.com

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### What is Bandwidth Delay Product in networking?

What is Bandwth delay product? … The term is wely used for data communication in various wireless and wired systems. It indicates number of bits (or bytes) …

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Source: www.rfwireless-world.com

Date Published: 12/18/2021

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### Lab 6: Bandwidth-delay Product and TCP Buffer Size

By the end of this lab, the user will: 1. Understand Bandwth-Delay Product (BDP). 2. Define TCP window size. 3. TCP window size calculation …

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### 1.1.ev Bandwidth delay product – CCIEorDIE

Bandwth-delay product (BDP) is a term primarily used in conjunction with the TCP to refer to the number of bytes necessary to fill a TCP “path”, i.e. it is …

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### The Bandwidth Delay Problem – Medium

Bandwth delay product … Like most modern OSes, Linux now does a good job of auto-tuning the TCP buffers, but in some cases the default maximum Linux TCP …

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## 주제와 관련된 이미지 bandwidth delay product

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## 주제에 대한 기사 평가 bandwidth delay product

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## Bandwidth Delay Product

Bandwidth Delay Product

Bandwidth delay product is a measurement of how many bits can fill up a network link. It gives the maximum amount of data that can be transmitted by the sender at a given time before waiting for acknowledgment. Thus it is the maximum amount of unacknowledged data.

Measurement

Bandwidth delay product is calculated as the product of the link capacity of the channel and the round – trip delay time of transmission.

The link capacity of a channel is the number of bits transmitted per second. Hence, its unit is bps, i.e. bits per second.

The round – trip delay time is the sum of the time taken for a signal to be transmitted from the sender to the receiver and the time taken for its acknowledgment to reach the sender from the receiver. The round – trip delay includes all propagation delays in the links between the sender and the receiver.

The unit of bandwidth delay product is bits or bytes.

Example

Consider that the link capacity of a channel is 512 Kbps and round – trip delay time is 1000ms.

The bandwidth delay product = 512 × 103 bits/sec × 1000 × 10−3 sec

= 512,000 bits = 64,000 bytes = 62.5 KB

Long Fat Networks

A long fat network (LFN) is a network having high bandwidth delay product which is greater than 105 bits.

Ultra – high-speed LANs (local area network) is an example of LFN. Another example is WANs through geostationary satellite connections.

## Bandwidth-delay product

Parameter in telecommunications networking

In data communications, the bandwidth-delay product is the product of a data link’s capacity (in bits per second) and its round-trip delay time (in seconds). The result, an amount of data measured in bits (or bytes), is equivalent to the maximum amount of data on the network circuit at any given time, i.e., data that has been transmitted but not yet acknowledged. The bandwidth-delay product was originally proposed as a rule of thumb for sizing router buffers in conjunction with congestion avoidance algorithm Random Early Detection (RED).

A network with a large bandwidth-delay product is commonly known as a long fat network (shortened to LFN). As defined in RFC 1072, a network is considered an LFN if its bandwidth-delay product is significantly larger than 105 bits (12,500 bytes).

Ultra-high speed local area networks (LANs) may fall into this category, where protocol tuning is critical for achieving peak throughput, on account of their extremely high bandwidth, even though their delay is not great. While a connection with 1 Gbit/s and a round-trip time below 100 μs is no LFN, a connection with 100 Gbit/s would need to stay below 1 μs RTT to not be considered an LFN.

An important example of a system where the bandwidth-delay product is large is that of geostationary satellite connections, where end-to-end delivery time is very high and link throughput may also be high. The high end-to-end delivery time makes life difficult for stop-and-wait protocols and applications that assume rapid end-to-end response.

A high bandwidth-delay product is an important problem case in the design of protocols such as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) in respect of TCP tuning, because the protocol can only achieve optimum throughput if a sender sends a sufficiently large quantity of data before being required to stop and wait until a confirming message is received from the receiver, acknowledging successful receipt of that data. If the quantity of data sent is insufficient compared with the bandwidth-delay product, then the link is not being kept busy and the protocol is operating below peak efficiency for the link. Protocols that hope to succeed in this respect need carefully designed self-monitoring, self-tuning algorithms. The TCP window scale option may be used to solve this problem caused by insufficient window size, which is limited to 65,535 bytes without scaling.

Examples [ edit ]

Moderate speed satellite network: 512 kbit/s, 900 ms round-trip time (RTT)

B × D = 512 × 10 3 bit/s ⋅ 900 × 10 − 3 s = 460 , 800 bit = 460.8 kbit = 57.6 kB {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}B\times D&=512\times 10^{3}{\text{ bit/s}}\cdot 900\times 10^{-3}{\text{ s}}\\&=460,800{\text{ bit}}=460.8{\text{ kbit}}=57.6{\text{ kB}}\end{aligned}}}

Residential DSL: 2 Mbit/s, 50 ms RTT B × D = 2 × 10 6 bit/s ⋅ 50 × 10 − 3 s = 100 × 10 3 bit = 100 kbit = 12.5 kB {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}B\times D&=2\times 10^{6}{\text{ bit/s}}\cdot 50\times 10^{-3}{\text{ s}}\\&=100\times 10^{3}{\text{ bit}}=100{\text{ kbit}}=12.5{\text{ kB}}\end{aligned}}}

Mobile broadband (HSDPA): 6 Mbit/s, 100 ms RTT B × D = 6 × 10 6 bit/s ⋅ 100 × 10 − 3 s = 600 × 10 3 bit = 600 kbit = 75 kB {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}B\times D&=6\times 10^{6}{\text{ bit/s}}\cdot 100\times 10^{-3}{\text{ s}}\\&=600\times 10^{3}{\text{ bit}}=600{\text{ kbit}}=75{\text{ kB}}\end{aligned}}}

Residential ADSL2+: 20 Mbit/s (from DSLAM to residential modem), 50 ms RTT B × D = 2 × 10 7 bit/s ⋅ 50 × 10 − 3 s = 10 6 bit = 1 Mbit = 125 kB {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}B\times D&=2\times 10^{7}{\text{ bit/s}}\cdot 50\times 10^{-3}{\text{ s}}\\&=10^{6}{\text{ bit}}=1{\text{ Mbit}}=125{\text{ kB}}\end{aligned}}}

Residential Cable internet (DOCSIS): 200 Mbit/s, 20 ms RTT B × D = 2 × 10 8 bit/s ⋅ 20 × 10 − 3 s = 4 × 10 6 bit = 4 Mbit = 500 kB {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}B\times D&=2\times 10^{8}{\text{ bit/s}}\cdot 20\times 10^{-3}{\text{ s}}\\&=4\times 10^{6}{\text{ bit}}=4{\text{ Mbit}}=500{\text{ kB}}\end{aligned}}}

High-speed terrestrial network: 1 Gbit/s, 1 ms RTT B × D = 10 9 bit/s × 10 − 3 s = 10 6 bit = 1 Mbit = 125 kB {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}B\times D&=10^{9}{\text{ bit/s}}\times 10^{-3}{\text{ s}}\\&=10^{6}{\text{ bit}}=1{\text{ Mbit}}=125{\text{ kB}}\end{aligned}}}

Ultra-high speed LAN: 100 Gbit/s, 30 μs RTT B × D = 100 × 10 9 bit/s ⋅ 30 × 10 − 6 s = 3 × 10 6 bit = 3 Mbit = 375 kB {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}B\times D&=100\times 10^{9}{\text{ bit/s}}\cdot 30\times 10^{-6}{\text{ s}}\\&=3\times 10^{6}{\text{ bit}}=3{\text{ Mbit}}=375{\text{ kB}}\end{aligned}}}

International research & education network: 100 Gbit/s, 200 ms RTT B × D = 10 11 bit/s ⋅ 0.2 s = 2 × 10 10 bit = 20 Gbit = 2.5 GB {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}B\times D&=10^{11}{\text{ bit/s}}\cdot 0.2{\text{ s}}\\&=2\times 10^{10}{\text{ bit}}=20{\text{ Gbit}}=2.5{\text{ GB}}\end{aligned}}}

References [ edit ]

## Bandwidth-delay product

Parameter in telecommunications networking

In data communications, the bandwidth-delay product is the product of a data link’s capacity (in bits per second) and its round-trip delay time (in seconds). The result, an amount of data measured in bits (or bytes), is equivalent to the maximum amount of data on the network circuit at any given time, i.e., data that has been transmitted but not yet acknowledged. The bandwidth-delay product was originally proposed as a rule of thumb for sizing router buffers in conjunction with congestion avoidance algorithm Random Early Detection (RED).

A network with a large bandwidth-delay product is commonly known as a long fat network (shortened to LFN). As defined in RFC 1072, a network is considered an LFN if its bandwidth-delay product is significantly larger than 105 bits (12,500 bytes).

Ultra-high speed local area networks (LANs) may fall into this category, where protocol tuning is critical for achieving peak throughput, on account of their extremely high bandwidth, even though their delay is not great. While a connection with 1 Gbit/s and a round-trip time below 100 μs is no LFN, a connection with 100 Gbit/s would need to stay below 1 μs RTT to not be considered an LFN.

An important example of a system where the bandwidth-delay product is large is that of geostationary satellite connections, where end-to-end delivery time is very high and link throughput may also be high. The high end-to-end delivery time makes life difficult for stop-and-wait protocols and applications that assume rapid end-to-end response.

A high bandwidth-delay product is an important problem case in the design of protocols such as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) in respect of TCP tuning, because the protocol can only achieve optimum throughput if a sender sends a sufficiently large quantity of data before being required to stop and wait until a confirming message is received from the receiver, acknowledging successful receipt of that data. If the quantity of data sent is insufficient compared with the bandwidth-delay product, then the link is not being kept busy and the protocol is operating below peak efficiency for the link. Protocols that hope to succeed in this respect need carefully designed self-monitoring, self-tuning algorithms. The TCP window scale option may be used to solve this problem caused by insufficient window size, which is limited to 65,535 bytes without scaling.

Examples [ edit ]

Moderate speed satellite network: 512 kbit/s, 900 ms round-trip time (RTT)

B × D = 512 × 10 3 bit/s ⋅ 900 × 10 − 3 s = 460 , 800 bit = 460.8 kbit = 57.6 kB {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}B\times D&=512\times 10^{3}{\text{ bit/s}}\cdot 900\times 10^{-3}{\text{ s}}\\&=460,800{\text{ bit}}=460.8{\text{ kbit}}=57.6{\text{ kB}}\end{aligned}}}

Residential DSL: 2 Mbit/s, 50 ms RTT B × D = 2 × 10 6 bit/s ⋅ 50 × 10 − 3 s = 100 × 10 3 bit = 100 kbit = 12.5 kB {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}B\times D&=2\times 10^{6}{\text{ bit/s}}\cdot 50\times 10^{-3}{\text{ s}}\\&=100\times 10^{3}{\text{ bit}}=100{\text{ kbit}}=12.5{\text{ kB}}\end{aligned}}}

Mobile broadband (HSDPA): 6 Mbit/s, 100 ms RTT B × D = 6 × 10 6 bit/s ⋅ 100 × 10 − 3 s = 600 × 10 3 bit = 600 kbit = 75 kB {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}B\times D&=6\times 10^{6}{\text{ bit/s}}\cdot 100\times 10^{-3}{\text{ s}}\\&=600\times 10^{3}{\text{ bit}}=600{\text{ kbit}}=75{\text{ kB}}\end{aligned}}}

Residential ADSL2+: 20 Mbit/s (from DSLAM to residential modem), 50 ms RTT B × D = 2 × 10 7 bit/s ⋅ 50 × 10 − 3 s = 10 6 bit = 1 Mbit = 125 kB {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}B\times D&=2\times 10^{7}{\text{ bit/s}}\cdot 50\times 10^{-3}{\text{ s}}\\&=10^{6}{\text{ bit}}=1{\text{ Mbit}}=125{\text{ kB}}\end{aligned}}}

Residential Cable internet (DOCSIS): 200 Mbit/s, 20 ms RTT B × D = 2 × 10 8 bit/s ⋅ 20 × 10 − 3 s = 4 × 10 6 bit = 4 Mbit = 500 kB {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}B\times D&=2\times 10^{8}{\text{ bit/s}}\cdot 20\times 10^{-3}{\text{ s}}\\&=4\times 10^{6}{\text{ bit}}=4{\text{ Mbit}}=500{\text{ kB}}\end{aligned}}}

High-speed terrestrial network: 1 Gbit/s, 1 ms RTT B × D = 10 9 bit/s × 10 − 3 s = 10 6 bit = 1 Mbit = 125 kB {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}B\times D&=10^{9}{\text{ bit/s}}\times 10^{-3}{\text{ s}}\\&=10^{6}{\text{ bit}}=1{\text{ Mbit}}=125{\text{ kB}}\end{aligned}}}

Ultra-high speed LAN: 100 Gbit/s, 30 μs RTT B × D = 100 × 10 9 bit/s ⋅ 30 × 10 − 6 s = 3 × 10 6 bit = 3 Mbit = 375 kB {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}B\times D&=100\times 10^{9}{\text{ bit/s}}\cdot 30\times 10^{-6}{\text{ s}}\\&=3\times 10^{6}{\text{ bit}}=3{\text{ Mbit}}=375{\text{ kB}}\end{aligned}}}

International research & education network: 100 Gbit/s, 200 ms RTT B × D = 10 11 bit/s ⋅ 0.2 s = 2 × 10 10 bit = 20 Gbit = 2.5 GB {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}B\times D&=10^{11}{\text{ bit/s}}\cdot 0.2{\text{ s}}\\&=2\times 10^{10}{\text{ bit}}=20{\text{ Gbit}}=2.5{\text{ GB}}\end{aligned}}}

References [ edit ]

## Op Amp Gain-bandwidth Product

Op Amp Gain-bandwidth Product

The gain-bandwidth product is gain of an op amp after the half-power point, where the gain of the op amp drops at a constant rate equal to the product of the gain x frequency.

Below is a chart of the gain-bandwidth product of an op amp:

The gain-bandwidth product is the region, after the half-power point or full-power bandwidth, where you see a steady, constant decline in the gain of the op amp as the frequency increases.

You can calculate the gain-bandwidth product by the formula:

Gain-bandwidth Product= Gain x Frequency

Beyond the half-power point frequency, the gain falls at a rate such that the product of the gain and the frequency is constant. This constant is the gain-bandwidth product.

An example of gain-bandwidth product calculation: If an op amp has an open-loop gain of 20 at 100KHz, it has a gain of 10 at 200KHz, a gain of 5 at 400KHz, and a gain of 1 at 2MHz. In each calculation, the gain-bandwidth product is equal to the gain x frequency= 2MHz.

## Latency and Bandwidth: Brothers from another Mother.

When it comes to network connectivity, bandwidth and latency are ‘brothers from another mother’ – close enough to be related but different enough to be noticeable. Understanding this distinction can mean the difference between an acceptable user experience and utter frustration.

Bandwidth is a measure of how much data can move (measured in X bits per second) and latency is a measure of the delay in moving that data (measured in milliseconds), between two nodes. In other words, bandwidth measures size and latency measures speed.

Do not conflate bandwidth and latency – size and speed are different measures. Imagine a car and a bus leaving Saskatoon at the same time, heading for a Rider game – the car seats four, the bus forty eight – the car arrives in Regina thirty minutes sooner then the bus and gets a head-start on tailgating. The car has lower latency then the bus, but the bus delivers twelve times more people.

Depending on your requirement – if getting there as fast you can to party is your thing, then latency (speed), is important to you. However, if your requirement is to get as many people to the game as efficiently as you can, then bandwidth (size) is more essential.

Bandwidth is crucial when you need to move large files. Data replication is an example of this. If those files, however, need to arrive ‘on-time’, then latency becomes vital. Think about a recent Zoom Video call you had with your team; conversations that flowed seamlessly versus jumbled messes of people talking over each other – this is the difference between acceptable and unacceptable latency.

Why is low latency so important?

Well, imagine high latency occurring during a remote medical procedure? Or how about an autonomous vehicle on delivery? I Would not want to be crossing the street when the AV’s braking algorithm is delayed by 150 milliseconds.

Most people focus on bandwidth as the main contributor to a poor network user experience, but latency can be the real culprit – it does not matter how much traffic you can move if it doesn’t arrive precisely when its needed. Any business application that demands fast, secure and reliable data access — such as machine data analytics, security analytics or operational analytics — will need low latency in order to be successful.

Conversely, business applications that do not require working with hot data (or primary workloads), such as archiving, backup and disaster recovery, can function without the strict high-performance and low latency requirements of other functions. Every organization in every industry, reduced network latency can open doors to new cloud projects and flexibility, which can help companies cut operational and infrastructure costs across the board.

The key takeaway here is that having enough bandwidth, while necessary, is not enough to ensure the performance of remote or cloud-based applications. High latency can have an extremely negative affect on collaboration tools, impacting productivity and derailing your cloud deployment strategy.

Next time: What Impacts Latency and tips on how you can improve it.

## Administering TCP/IP Networks, IPMP, and IP Tunnels in Oracle® Solaris 11.3

Changing the TCP Receive Buffer Size

The size of the TCP receive buffer is set by using the recv_buf TCP property, which is 128 KB by default. However, applications do not use available bandwidth uniformly. Thus, connection latency might require you to change the default size. For example, using the Secure Shell feature of Oracle Solaris causes overhead on bandwidth use because of the additional checksum and encryption processes that are performed on the data stream. Thus, the buffer size might need to be increased. Likewise, to enable applications that perform bulk transfers to use bandwidth efficiently, the same buffer size adjustment is also required.

You can calculate the correct receive buffer size to use by estimating the bandwidth delay product (BDP). To calculate BDP, multiply the available bandwidth by the value of the connection latency.

Use the ping –s host command to obtain the value of the connection latency.

The appropriate receive buffer size approximates the value of the BDP. However, the use of bandwidth also depends on a variety of conditions. A shared infrastructure or the number of applications and users that compete for the use of bandwidth can change that estimate.

Change the value of the buffer size as follows:

# ipadm set-prop -p recv_buf= value tcp

The following example shows how to increase the buffer size to 164 KB:

# ipadm show-prop -p recv_buf tcp PROTO PROPERTY PERM CURRENT PERSISTENT DEFAULT POSSIBLE tcp recv_buf rw 128000 — 128000 2048-1048576 # ipadm set-prop -p recv_buf=164000 tcp # ipadm show-prop -p recv_buf tcp PROTO PROPERTY PERM CURRENT PERSISTENT DEFAULT POSSIBLE tcp recv_buf rw 164000 164000 128000 2048-1048576

No set value for the buffer size is preferred because the preferred size varies depending on the circumstance. Consider the following examples where different values are set for the BDP in each network with specific conditions:

Typical 1 Gbps local area network (LAN) where 128 KB is the default value of the buffer size: BDP = 128 MBps * 0.001 s = 128 kB Theoretical 1Gbps wide area network (WAN) with 100 ms latency: BDP = 128 MBps * 0.1 s = 12.8 MB Europe-to-U.S. link (bandwidth measured by uperf ) BDP = 2.6 MBps * 0.175 = 470 kB

If you cannot compute the BDP, use the following guidelines: For bulk transfers over a LAN, the default value of the buffer size (128 KB) is sufficient.

For most WAN deployments, the receive buffer size should be in the 2 MB range.

## Bandwidth Delay Product

TCP is one of those protocols that we usually don’t think about too much. As network engineers we are busy working with network devices like routers or switches. TCP is one of those protocols that is used most between hosts or servers and it works without giving it much thought. It establishes connections, transmits data, sends acknowledgments and when something goes wrong…it retransmits it.

TCP uses a sliding window size that indicates how much the receiver is willing to receive from the sender. Depending on the receive buffer and network conditions, this window size will increase or decrease as needed. The larger the window size, the higher the throughput will be. With a window size of 1, the receiver would send an acknowledgment for each segment that it receives which results in a lot of overhead.

This “stop and go” mechanism of TCP works very well “out of the box” but on certain links, TCP might require some tuning. This is especially true on so called long fat networks (LFN).

A LFN is a network that offers a high bandwidth but also a very high delay. An example could be a satellite connection. These connections offer a high bandwidth but the delay is also quite high since you have to send your signal 22000 miles up to the satellite and another 22000 miles down to reach the receiver. You can expect a round trip time anywhere between about 500-1000 ms.

The problem here is that when the sender sends some data, it has to be wait a very long time for an acknowledgment of the receiver before it can send the next data. During the time we are waiting, nothing happens so we don’t utilize the full bandwidth of our link.

The throughput of TCP is limited by the round trip time of the link and the window size. We can’t change the round trip time but we can play with the window size. Take a look at the image below:

Imagine we send some data from the host to the server, when this piece of data is on its way we have to wait a long time before it reaches the server and for the acknowledgment to come back. A lot of bandwidth is wasted. This is what happens with a large window size:

With a large window size, we can fill the entire “pipeline” with data. We don’t waste anything.

When you are using a 5 Mbit satellite link and you have a transmission rate of 1 or 2 Mbit of TCP traffic, you probably have some TCP tuning to do.

The most optimal window size depends on the bandwidth and delay of the link, we call this the bandwidth delay product. We can calculate it with the following formula:

Bandwidth Delay Product = bandwidth (bits per sec) * round trip time (in seconds)

So for example, let’s calculate the bandwidth delay product of a satellite link that has a round trip time of 500 ms:

5000000 bits * 0.5 seconds = bandwidth delay product 2500000

So our bandwidth delay product is 2500000 bits. The window size is typically configured in bytes so 2500000 / 8 would be 312500 bytes.

Here are some other examples:

ADSL 2 Mbit with 50 ms round trip time: 2000000 bits * 0.05 seconds = bandwidth delay product 100000 bits (or 12500 bytes)

ADSL2 20 Mbit with 50 ms round trip time: 20000000 bits * 0.05 seconds = bandwidth delay product 1000000 bits (or 125000 bytes)

FastEthernet LAN Interface with 1 ms round trip time: 100000000 bits * 0.001 seconds = bandwidth delay product 100000 bits (or 12500 bytes)

Gigabit LAN Interface with 1 ms round trip time: 1000000000 bits * 0.001 seconds = bandwidth delay product 1000000 bits (or 125000 bytes)

Are there any downsides to increasing the TCP window size? One thing to consider is that by increasing the window size, you also need a large receive buffer but this

shouldn’t be much of a problem on any modern hardware. Also with a larger window size you will have a lot of data “in transit” so if you have any errors on the link,

there’s a lot of data to retransmit.

iPerf Demonstration

Once you have calculated the bandwidth delay product, you should test if it works. A nice way to test this is by using iPerf. This application allows you to generate TCP traffic with different window sizes. To demonstrate this, I’ll use two hosts:

These two hosts are connected through a gigabit link so this is a high bandwidth low delay link. Even though the round trip time is low, we still have to use a decent window size to get some decent performance.

A quick ping tells us the round trip time:

## What is the Bandwidth * Delay Product ?

The Bandwidth *Delay Product, or BDP for short determines the amount of data that can be in transit in the network. It is the product of the availalbe bandwidth and the latency , or RTT. BDP is a very important concept in a Window based protocol such as TCP. It plays an especially important role in high-speed / high- latency networks, such as most broadband internet connections. It is one of the most important factors of tweaking TCP in order to tune systems to the type of network used.The BDP simply states that:or, since RWIN /BDP is usually in bytes, and latency is measured in milliseconds:What does it all mean ? The TCP Window is a buffer that determines how much data can be transferred before the server stops and waits for acknowledgements of received packets. Throughput is in essence bound by the BDP . If the BDP (or RWIN ) is lower than the product of the latency and available bandwidth , we can’t fill the line since the client can’t send acknowledgements back fast enough. A transmission can’t exceed the (RWIN / latency ) value, so The TCP Window ( RWIN ) needs to be large enough to fit the maximum_available_bandwidth x maximum_anticipaded_delay.

## What is Bandwidth Delay Product in networking?

What is Bandwidth Delay Product in networking?

This page describes bandwidth delay product and its purpose in networking and data communication.The formula and link on how to calculate bandwidth delay product is also mentioned.

What is Bandwidth delay product?

The term is widely used for data communication in various wireless and wired systems. It indicates number of bits (or bytes) which can be transmitted before an ACK (acknowledgement) is received from the other end. In other words, it is estimation of number of bits “in transit” through the transmission medium.

The concept of bandwidth delay product can best be illustrated as shown in the figure. We can think it as link between two points of a pipe. The cross section represents bandwidth where as pipe length represents delay. Volume of pipe defines bandwidth delay product (BDP). The BDP defines the number of bits that can fill the link.

Examples of BDP for various systems are as follows.

➨Satellite network with data rate of 512 Kbps and RTT of 1000 ms, BDP = 512000 bits = 512 kbits = 64 KBytes

➨DSL with 2 Mbps data rate (i.e. bandwidth) and RTT of 50 ms, BDP = 100 kbits = 12.5 Kbytes

➨Ultra speed LAN with 100 Gbps and 30 µs RTT, BDP = 3 Mbits = 0.375 Mbytes

What is the purpose of bandwidth delay product ?

• It helps in determining maximum amount of data on the network path at any time instant. At this time, data has been transmitted but not acknowledged yet.

• The network having larger bandwidth-delay product with greater than 105 bits is known as long fat network.

• One such example of such long fat network is Geostationary satellite link as it will have end to end transit time as well as link throughput higher.

• If the amount of data to be transmitted is in-sufficient in comparison to BDP, then the transmission link is not considered to be overloaded. Hence it can be concluded that protocol is functioning well below the peak efficiency of link.

Bandwidth Delay Product Calculation

The formula used in bandwidth delay product calculation is mentioned above.

Data communication and networking stuff

Circuit Switching vs Packet switching Packet Switching vs Message switching What is an IP address What is MAC Address Basics of OSI and TCP-IP Layers What is Hub What is Switch What is Bridge What is Router What is Gateway Firewall basics TCP-IP Packet format ARP Protocol format echo canceller exchange signaling types EPABX basics PDH vs SDH CAS vs CCS Erlang/Grade of Service

What is Difference between

difference between FDM and OFDM

Difference between SC-FDMA and OFDM

Difference between SISO and MIMO

Difference between TDD and FDD

Difference between 802.11 standards viz.11-a,11-b,11-g and 11-n

OFDM vs OFDMA

CDMA vs GSM

Bluetooth vs zigbee

Fixed wimax vs mobile

RF and Wireless Terminologies

## 1.1.ev Bandwidth delay product – CCIEorDIE

The delay-bandwidth product of a transmission path defines the amount of data TCP should have within the transmission path at any one time, in order to fully utilize the available channel capacity.

The TCP window size must be large enough to allow the sender to fill the pipe with no acks from the receiver

from wiki: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bandwidth-delay_product

In data communications, bandwidth-delay product refers to the product of a data link’s capacity (in bits per second) and its end-to-end delay (in seconds). The result, an amount of data measured in bits (or bytes), is equivalent to the maximum amount of data on the network circuit at any given time, i.e., data that has been transmitted but not yet acknowledged. Sometimes it is calculated as the data link’s capacity multiplied by its round trip time

more wiki:

Bandwidth-delay product (BDP)

Bandwidth-delay product (BDP) is a term primarily used in conjunction with the TCP to refer to the number of bytes necessary to fill a TCP “path”, i.e. it is equal to the maximum number of simultaneous bits in transit between the transmitter and the receiver.

High performance networks have very large BDPs. To give a practical example, two nodes communicating over a geostationary satellite link with a round trip delay of 0.5 seconds and a bandwidth of 10 Gbit/s can have up to 0.5×1010 bits, i.e., 5 Gbit = 625 MB of unacknowledged data in flight. Despite having much lower latencies than satellite links, even terrestrial fiber links can have very high BDPs because their link capacity is so large. Operating systems and protocols designed as recently as a few years ago when networks were slower were tuned for BDPs of orders of magnitude smaller, with implications for limited achievable performance.

round-trip time (RTT) is the length of time it takes for a signal to be sent plus the length of time it takes for an acknowledgment of that signal to be received. This time delay therefore consists of the propagation times between the two points of a signal.

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